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York University (12,183)
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PSYC 2210 (13)
Chapter

learning and behaviour ch 10
learning and behaviour ch 10

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School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2210
Professor
Anthony Nield
Semester
Fall

Description
Stimulus Control and Concept FormationCHAPTER 10Stimulus control relationship between stimuli and beh Generalization GradientsMeasuring generalization gradientsA pigeon is reinforced to peck at a yellow key for foodNow we wish to measure generalization with a different colour keyProbe trail briefly present other colour to measure responding but do not give reinforcerOr begin with the same type of training and follow with a series of extinction trials with both yellow and other coloursAnother studyChildren were given a 40 second tone then they were asked to say yes if it was the same tone or no if it was a different tone There were more yes to tones that were about 4 seconds and more nos if they were shorter or longerWhat cause Generalization GradientsPavlov generalization is an automatic byproduct of the conditioning process incorrectLashley and Wade Generalization gradients are not innate they depend of learning experience Subjects must receive experience in which reinforcers occur in the presence of one or more colors but not in their absenceHow experience affects shape of generalization gradientsJerkins and Harrison conducted an experiment that provides support for Lashley and wades theoryTwo groups of pigeons responded on a VI schedule with a 1000Hz tone Three pigeonsThree pigeons received nondifferential training in which every trial was the same light was lit tone was on and VI schedule in effect presence absence training which includedFive other pigeons receivedtwo types of trials 1 1000Hz tone that were exactly as the other group and 2 without tone which the key light was lit as usual but no reinforcers were deliveredThey were all given extinction trials in which different frequency sounds were playedThe nondifferential training group remained about the same no matter the sound and the presenceabsence training group typical gradients with sharp peaks at 1000HzAnother experiment by Jerkins and HarrisonTwo pigeons received discrimination training in which 1000Hz was an S and a 950Hz was an SIntradimensional training discrimination training in which S and S come from the same stimulus continuum sound frequencyMost responding occurred around 1000Hz and no much when Hz was 950 or less or more than 1010Hz Thus generalization gradient are dependent on experience With no differential training tone frequency has no control over responding with presenceabsence training tone frequency exerted modest control
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