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Chapter 12

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Emotion and Motivation Brain Mechanism of Emotion  Hypothalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus  Amygdala (primary structure in production and governance of emotion)  Collectively known as the limbic system Carlson: emotional response consists of 3 components  Emotional behaviors-muscular changes appropriate to environmental context)  Autonomic changes-additional energy available quickly and prepares for additional activity)  Hormonal changes-production of hormones help sustain autonomic response The main shit is that the amygdala runs the whole thing Amygdala located between temporal lobes  Division of amygdala most relevant: medial nucleus, lateral and basolateral nucleus, central nucleus and basal nucleus  Sensory inputs go to amygdala from thalamus and sensory cortex, hippocampus (fear conditioning)  Stimulates emotional response automatically (without cortical processing)  Inputs from the orbital frontal cortex may be important for emotion based on social situations  Phineas Gage fucked up his frontal cortex. Fully recovered by had personality changes (damaged OFC)  OFC patients have trouble making rational decisions about personal and social matters, changes in emotion processing  OFC and anterior cingulate cortex are together called the ventromedial prefrontal cortex- serotonin is the main neurotransmitter; dopamine  Connects with amygdala  Amygdala runs shit. Connects to hypothalamus that could provide the necessary pathway for autonomic changes as a result of emotional situations, connects with brainstem (emotionality behaviors), OFC-cognition and emotion interact  Recognition of facial expressions of emotion (particularly fear)  Attempts to resolve biologically relevant shit – modulates vigilance in order to gain additional information to resolve the situation Emotion from a Learning Perspective Classical Conditioning  Classical conditioning important in the production of emotion  Can result in new motivation  Many emotions result from accidental pairing of stimuli in the environment with things that happen to us  Explains why some songs make us feel good others not so good  Conditioned fear-stimuli associated with unpleasant experience may stir up negative emotion  Conditioned fear associated with activity in the amygdala  Crucial to the development of emotional learning; classical conditioning of fear  Basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) important for the association of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus. Enables a CS to call forth the emotional or motivational value of the UCS to which it is connected  BLA linked to memory storage; part of circuitry that may improve memory in emotionally arousing situations  Central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved with the control of the hypothalamus, midbrain, and brain stem area concerned with arousal and responding; conditioned responses  Independent of the identity and current motivational value of the US Operant Instrumental Conditioning and Emotion  Operant conditioning the consequences of a response alter the future probability of that response  Reinforcement and punishment  Emotional component to this shit  Reinforcing consequences promote positive emotional responses and vice versa  Motivates and alters our emotional state  All the other cortex’s are linked to the nucleus accumbens either directly or indirectly (Acb).  Crucial for natural reinforcers and artificial reinforcers  Both stimulate dopamine in the Acb. Aversive stimuli also stimulate dopamine release  DA and NMDA glutamate receptors in the media prefrontal cortex in rats play a crucial role in producing operant conditioning  Concerned with learning and motivation  Frontal cortex areas (OFC, ACC, mPFC0, amygdala (BLA and CeA) and nucleus acubens (Acb) are importantly involved in the association of responses and their consequences in operant conditioning Emotional Modelling  Emotionality can be learned just through observation (observational learning/modelling)  Sensitive to the body language of others  Happens early in development about a year of age  Develop phobias by seeing a model behave fearfully towards or injured by an object The Preparedness of Emotional Learning  General process learning theory assumes that on response can be learned just as easily as any other; have to modify this shit  Some responses are learned easily, some not, some unlearnable  Figured this out through conditioning experiments. Can’t predict an organisms behavior unless you know everything about them  Continuum-events that can be easily and quickly associated (prepared associations); other end is associations an organism can’t learn (contraprepared associations). In between the two is unprepared associations (can be learned but needs a lot of experience to form associations)  Preparedness hypothesis- different species evolved different prepared, cont prep and unprep as a result of selective pressures  Phobias is an example (classical conditioning)  Problem with this? Phobia can be learned in 1 trial, concern a non-arbitrary set of situations, resistant to extinction, non-cognitive in nature (same with prepared behaviors) Emotion from a Cognitive Perspective  Cognitive processes important in the experience of emotion  Theorists didn’t really give a shit about it till like 60 years ago  Stresses importance of cognitive appraisal; bodily changes are insufficient for the experience of true emotion; we must assess a situation as emotion producing before we experience emotion  We attach a cognitive label to arousal, when the cue suggests pleasantness, we are happy  Argued that cognition alone was sufficient Attribution of emotion  Valin experiment. Men look at female pictures and given a verbal physiological feedback  Once formed, emotions are tough to change  Only the belief that one is aroused is necessary for the experience of emotion  Attraction ratings may have resulted from false feedback and from actual physiological changes  Demand characteristics rather than attribution that one is aroused may be responsible for the effects obtained in the false feedback situations  Evidence for more processes involved  People differ in the in the degree to which they are motivated to behave according to internal or external cues  Scale to measure a personality trait-self monitoring  Self-motivators are motivated to change their behavior to meet the demands
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