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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Motivation.docx

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 11 Motivation: Competence and Control  Humanistic psychology looks at the persistent motive within individuals to become competent in dealing with the environment Carl Rogers and Positive Regard  Client centred therapy  Based on humanistic ideas about motives  Life is an active ongoing process  Strive for wholeness  Process of achieving wholeness is never complete; striving called actualizing tendency, innate  The only motive is growth; analyzed by the attempts by an organism to maintain, enhance, and reproduce itself  Striving for fulfillment is importantly influenced by our environment ; experiences can help or hinder our growth; social interactions important  Experiences in infancy influence psychological growth; actualizing tendency created a need for positive regard and positive self-regard  Our feelings of positive regard come from our others as well as from the self, come from interactions with parents in what Rogers called unconditional positive regard  Means that a person is loved and accepted regardless of behavior; hence we receive experiences that allow us to see that we are loved regardless of what we do  Actualizing tendency work towards growth because the persons own concept is consistent with the feedback from others; person is open to change; no defensive; can grow; fully functional individual  P.R. too contingent on specific behaviors; only feel worthwhile if they behave in certain ways (conditional positive regard); creates anxiety; maladaptive behaviors; feel loved because behavior is correct  Anxiety triggers defenses, so the individual begins denying or distorting cognitions because they are inconsistent with the self-concept  Energy of the self-actualizing tendency is channeled into the defenses to protect the self; not free to grow; becomes static; limits individual  Growth and change the basics for psychological health; basic motive: actualizing tendency  To be fully functioning individuals, we must have unconditional positive regard so that we can “let down” our defenses and all the self to change and grow; when we drop our defense we can be aware of what is happening within us and can change; can learn to accept ourselves for what we are without anxiety Fully Functioning Individual 5 Characteristics define this concept 1. Openness to experience- doesn’t have to defend themselves in certain experiences so less distorted perceptions. Aware or their characteristics alters them when needed. More emotional; intensity of emotions 2. Existential living- lives life to the fullest doesn’t concentrate on past and future. General interest in life; core of a healthy personality 3. Trust in one’s own organism- behaves in certain ways because of feels right rather than intellectually right; intuitive; in touch with their innermost feelings; spontaneous, impulsive behaviors; intellectual decision are downgraded but not ignored 4. Sense of freedom. Freedom in choosing what happens to them. They determine their future. They run shit 5. Creativity. Very creative. Increased ability to adapt to change and to survive even drastic changes in their environment. Free to control their lives; free from denial and distortions that produce ridged behavior; not in a state but in a process=continual striving  Full functioning does not promise happiness; shits difficult and painful; fully functioning person is more comfortable with life situations and to cope with them in open and flexible ways Criticisms of Rogers’s Approach  Optimistic as fuck  When we screw up it is seen because of parental experiences or when we our self-worth is conditional  Many of his terms aren’t operationally defined (can it be measured? Where does it come from?  Environment is regarded as an important source of motivational change but it is unclear which environmental conditions will enhance growth and which ones will hinder it  Implies “me first” psychology. Didn’t say shit about how feelings of responsibility towards others may lead to growth  Does not emphasise to any great extent the goals towards which an individual may be striving. Ignored the end products  Empirically weak. Cant test that shit Maslow (my nigga)  Developed a homeostatic motivational theory that emphasises the striving to reach ones full potential as basic to human motivation but includes other shit  Motivation has to take into account the individual as a whole  Must seek to understand ultimate goals of behavior rather than the superficial or apparent goals, because the apparent goal for any observed behavior may be quite different from the actual goal  Motivation at the unconscious level; as a positive thing though  Striving for perfection or self-actualization as the ultimate purpose of behavior  Human motivation is better studied by looking at people rather than animals  Hierarchy of needs- needs on the lower end are stronger and must be satisfied before you move up higher on the hierarchy. Not totally ridged though. You can partially satisfy one level and partially satisfy another  Problematic- if a lower need is satisfied most of the time it has little influence on behavior Maslow needs  Physiological needs-hunger, thirst. Need to satisfy otherwise things higher up will be pushed to the background in terms of controlling behavior  Safety needs-safety and security from environment. Dominates in times of emergency. Seen in preferences for familiar surroundings (job, savings account, insurance). Most seen in young kids. Disorders understood as no satisfaction of needs. Person acts as if in continuous unsatisfied state  Love or Belongingness Needs- affectionate relationships, belonging. Note equivalent to sexual needs. Needs to give and receive love; marriage, groups, jobs; frats. Don’t have this leads to maladjustment and pathology most common basis for behavioral problems in society  Esteem needs- positive high evaluation of self. Need for self-esteem and esteem from other. Need self-esteem motivates achievement, strength and so you don’t feel like a waste nigga. Need it from others for reputation, status, feelings of importance. We feel like we have purpose in the world. When not there we feel waste, inferior and helpless; maladjustment can occur.  Deprivation motivation- needs result from deficiencies in the person’s life; behaviors related to the first 4 categories are motivated by a deprivation of those things necessary for full development  Behaviors to fill these needs are activated by deprivation motivation (D-motivation)  The order of the 4 steps are accurate for most people but there are exceptions  Some people chronically deprived at the physiological level may never get to the higher level  People who have their shit done for them will be less influenced by these needs later if the needs are suddenly no longer being met  First 4 years important in building resistance to deprivation  As the lower needs become more and more satisfied, the higher needs become more and more prominent in the control of behavior  Most people unaware of the needs hierarchy. Shit is unconscious.  Self-actualization- when we satisfy all levels the final level can be reached. Person behavior is motivated by different shit than the other 4 levels. Called being needs (b- motivation or metamotivation). Values such as truth, honesty, goodness, they provide meaning to life. No longer motivated by deficiencies but are motivated to become all they can be. Expand horizons; improve. Takes long self-actualized individuals are 60 or up. Motivated by growth motivation. Solve problems outside themselves. Occasional ruthlessness. Extreme ability to concentrate sometimes appears absentminded. They feel guilt and anxiety but that stems from them realizing that they are not all they could be  2 types of self-actualization differentiated as peak experiences: a peak experience is a short but intense feeling of awe accompanied by a sense of fulfillment and insight with something larger than the self. Some self-actualized people rarely have this experience some always do.  The ones that do- transcends or speakers  Those who didn’t- non peakers. Both share all the characteristics of self-actualization except peak experiences  Suggests 2 levels of self-actualizes in which transcenders are higher up. They experience more sadness because they can see the stupidity of people more clearly and to experience sadness for the failings of others Failure to Self-Actualize  Tendency towards growth is weaker than the deficiency motives. Can be stunted by poor environment or poor education.  Western culture emphasises negative nature of human motivation has worked against our trusting of inner nature. Reject inner experience altogether  Growth requires the taking of chances, a stepping away from the secure and comfortable. People choose security over growth. People are afraid of their own abilities. To be everything you can be is intimidating so people reject it; Jonah complex  Gotta study the most exceptional individuals to learn about human behavior Criticism  Studied other niggas to come up with his theories, they wanted to be anonymous so other psychologists could find out if he was talking shit or not  Also the his
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