PSYC 2230 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Peak Experience, Humanistic Psychology, Abusive Power And Control

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
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Chapter 11 Motivation: Competence and Control
Humanistic psychology looks at the persistent motive within individuals to become
competent in dealing with the environment
Carl Rogers and Positive Regard
Client centred therapy
Based on humanistic ideas about motives
Life is an active ongoing process
Strive for wholeness
Process of achieving wholeness is never complete; striving called actualizing tendency,
innate
The only motive is growth; analyzed by the attempts by an organism to maintain,
enhance, and reproduce itself
Striving for fulfillment is importantly influenced by our environment ; experiences can
help or hinder our growth; social interactions important
Experiences in infancy influence psychological growth; actualizing tendency created a
need for positive regard and positive self-regard
Our feelings of positive regard come from our others as well as from the self, come from
interactions with parents in what Rogers called unconditional positive regard
Means that a person is loved and accepted regardless of behavior; hence we receive
experiences that allow us to see that we are loved regardless of what we do
Actualizing tendency work towards growth because the persons own concept is
consistent with the feedback from others; person is open to change; no defensive; can
grow; fully functional individual
P.R. too contingent on specific behaviors; only feel worthwhile if they behave in certain
ways (conditional positive regard); creates anxiety; maladaptive behaviors; feel loved
because behavior is correct
Anxiety triggers defenses, so the individual begins denying or distorting cognitions
because they are inconsistent with the self-concept
Energy of the self-actualizing tendency is channeled into the defenses to protect the self;
not free to grow; becomes static; limits individual
Growth and change the basics for psychological health; basic motive: actualizing
tendency
To be fully functioning individuals, we must have unconditional positive regard so that
we can “let down” our defenses and all the self to change and grow; when we drop our
defense we can be aware of what is happening within us and can change; can learn to
accept ourselves for what we are without anxiety
Fully Functioning Individual
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5 Characteristics define this concept
1. Openness to experience- doesn’t have to defend themselves in certain experiences so less
distorted perceptions. Aware or their characteristics alters them when needed. More
emotional; intensity of emotions
2. Existential living- lives life to the fullest doesn’t concentrate on past and future. General
interest in life; core of a healthy personality
3. Trust in one’s own organism- behaves in certain ways because of feels right rather than
intellectually right; intuitive; in touch with their innermost feelings; spontaneous,
impulsive behaviors; intellectual decision are downgraded but not ignored
4. Sense of freedom. Freedom in choosing what happens to them. They determine their
future. They run shit
5. Creativity. Very creative. Increased ability to adapt to change and to survive even drastic
changes in their environment. Free to control their lives; free from denial and distortions
that produce ridged behavior; not in a state but in a process=continual striving
Full functioning does not promise happiness; shits difficult and painful; fully functioning
person is more comfortable with life situations and to cope with them in open and
flexible ways
Criticisms of Rogers’s Approach
Optimistic as fuck
When we screw up it is seen because of parental experiences or when we our self-worth
is conditional
Many of his terms aren’t operationally defined (can it be measured? Where does it come
from?
Environment is regarded as an important source of motivational change but it is unclear
which environmental conditions will enhance growth and which ones will hinder it
Implies “me first” psychology. Didn’t say shit about how feelings of responsibility
towards others may lead to growth
Does not emphasise to any great extent the goals towards which an individual may be
striving. Ignored the end products
Empirically weak. Cant test that shit
Maslow (my nigga)
Developed a homeostatic motivational theory that emphasises the striving to reach ones
full potential as basic to human motivation but includes other shit
Motivation has to take into account the individual as a whole
Must seek to understand ultimate goals of behavior rather than the superficial or apparent
goals, because the apparent goal for any observed behavior may be quite different from
the actual goal
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Motivation at the unconscious level; as a positive thing though
Striving for perfection or self-actualization as the ultimate purpose of behavior
Human motivation is better studied by looking at people rather than animals
Hierarchy of needs- needs on the lower end are stronger and must be satisfied before you
move up higher on the hierarchy. Not totally ridged though. You can partially satisfy one
level and partially satisfy another
Problematic- if a lower need is satisfied most of the time it has little influence on
behavior
Maslow needs
Physiological needs-hunger, thirst. Need to satisfy otherwise things higher up will be
pushed to the background in terms of controlling behavior
Safety needs-safety and security from environment. Dominates in times of emergency.
Seen in preferences for familiar surroundings (job, savings account, insurance). Most
seen in young kids. Disorders understood as no satisfaction of needs. Person acts as if in
continuous unsatisfied state
Love or Belongingness Needs- affectionate relationships, belonging. Note equivalent to
sexual needs. Needs to give and receive love; marriage, groups, jobs; frats. Don’t have
this leads to maladjustment and pathology most common basis for behavioral problems in
society
Esteem needs- positive high evaluation of self. Need for self-esteem and esteem from
other. Need self-esteem motivates achievement, strength and so you don’t feel like a
waste nigga. Need it from others for reputation, status, feelings of importance. We feel
like we have purpose in the world. When not there we feel waste, inferior and helpless;
maladjustment can occur.
Deprivation motivation- needs result from deficiencies in the person’s life; behaviors
related to the first 4 categories are motivated by a deprivation of those things necessary
for full development
Behaviors to fill these needs are activated by deprivation motivation (D-motivation)
The order of the 4 steps are accurate for most people but there are exceptions
Some people chronically deprived at the physiological level may never get to the higher
level
People who have their shit done for them will be less influenced by these needs later if
the needs are suddenly no longer being met
First 4 years important in building resistance to deprivation
As the lower needs become more and more satisfied, the higher needs become more and
more prominent in the control of behavior
Most people unaware of the needs hierarchy. Shit is unconscious.
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Document Summary

Humanistic psychology looks at the persistent motive within individuals to become competent in dealing with the environment. Process of achieving wholeness is never complete; striving called actualizing tendency, innate. The only motive is growth; analyzed by the attempts by an organism to maintain, enhance, and reproduce itself. Striving for fulfillment is importantly influenced by our environment ; experiences can help or hinder our growth; social interactions important. Experiences in infancy influence psychological growth; actualizing tendency created a need for positive regard and positive self-regard. Our feelings of positive regard come from our others as well as from the self, come from interactions with parents in what rogers called unconditional positive regard. Means that a person is loved and accepted regardless of behavior; hence we receive experiences that allow us to see that we are loved regardless of what we do.

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