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Chapter 4

Physiological Needs Chapter 4.docx

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York University
PSYC 2230
Pauline Charlton

Physiological Needs Chapter 4 Need - any condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well- being. When needs are nurtured and satisfied well being is maintained and enhanced. Motivational states therefore things that need to be maintained. If neglected or frustrated, the need is thwarting will produce damage that disrupts psychological well being. Physiological needs ---- inherent within workings of biological systems. Thirst - Thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies the person to perform behaviours necessary to replenish a water deficit. Hunger - Hunger and eating involve a complex regulatory system of both short-term (glucostatic hypothesis) and Sex - We all have desire for sex and the need to for our genes to survive by reproducing with a female. Hunger Processes Short term appetite long term energy balance comprehensive model of hunger of regulation environmental influences restraint release situations cognitively regulated eating style weight gain and obesity set point or settling points? Comprehensive model of hunger regulation Hunger(Appetite) ----> Eating(Energy Intake) ----> Fate stores (body weight) ----> Physical Activity (energy expenditure)----->Exercise Motivation Eating - Environmental influences - food variety, appearance, situational pressures, self-regulation Motivation The biological basis of weight regulation -The Search for Hunger/Satiety signals --Feelings of hunger rise and fall with levels of glucose and insulin --Possible link to the number of fat cells in the body -Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) --Stimulation leads to hunger --Lesioning leads to self-starvation -Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) --VMH lesioning leads to hunger --VMH stimulation causes an animal to stop eating. Hunger hormone Ghrelin rises at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and goes down every time the hunger is satisfied. Short term appetite Regulation -Pancreas hormone insulin helps glucose get into cell. When gluose levels fall, insulin productions increases and we feel hungry. -Cholecytokinin (CCK) --- SATIETY hormone produced by the intestine -Ghrelin --- appetite stimulant produced by stomach The glycemic index of some common foods -Unhealthy breakfast trends -Dessert for breakfast -Super-sizing -Calorie-- amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree Celsius The biological basis of weight regulation Long term weight regulation -laboratory mice with a defective gene for regulating the hormone leptin become obese -leptin levels increase with body fat neurons in the arcuate nucleus (arc) of the hypothalamus contain many receptors for leptin Cholesterol and Disease Framingham Study ---Best predictor of heart disease is the amount of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the body -Serum cholesterol is determined partly by heredity -Diet is implicated in one third of all cancer deaths in the United States Environmental Influences -Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour the time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food -Eating behaviour increases significantly, for instance, when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes. People are likely to eat more in a social setting and due to the variety of food available. Three Motivations Self-Regulation of Food Intake - decreasing eating through self regulating strategies Mindful over one's environmental influences - becoming aware of and moi
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