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Chapter 8

Motivation Textbook chapter 8 summary

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PSYC 2230
Pauline Charlton

Chapter 8 – Goal Setting and Goal Striving Plans - Any mismatch perceived between one’s present state and one’s ideal state instigates an experience of incongruity - People that suffer incongruity, formulate a plan to remove that incongruity - Motivational process underlying a plan is: people have an idea of both their present and ideal states and if there is a incongruity between the two it makes people uncomfortable enough to make a plan to act upon and try to remove that incongruity so that the present state will change and become a ideal state - Incongruity becomes a “spring to action” (provides energy) to lean toward organizing our behavior to the ideal state (provides direction) - The cognitive mechanism by which plans energize and direct behavior is the test-operate-test-exit (TOTE) model. Test means to compare the present state against the ideal state. If there is a mismatch between the two (incongruity) it springs the individual into action. The mismatch motivates the individual to operate on the environment through a plan. Ex: combing hair for example. When you look at mirror and it doesn’t look the way you want it to (ideal state) you have a mismatch (incongruity), so then you either comb it, shower, hairspray. Then you test to see if it match the ideal state, and if not you keep operate upon it and if it does match your ideal state you exit. Corrective Motivation - Individuals: o Detect present-ideal inconsistencies o Generate a plan to eliminate the incongruity o Instigate plan regulated behavior o Monitor feedback as to the extence of any remaining present-ideal incongruity - Incongruity between present and ideal state = one’s plan is likely to change and undergo modification as is one’s behavior - Modifiable plans presents human beings as active decision makers who choose the following in a any situation: o Act (operate) to achieve the ideal state OR change and revise an ineffective plan - Corrective Motivation: actives a decision making process in which the individual considers many different possible ways for reducing the present- ideal incongruity: change the plan, change the behavior(increase effort), or withdraw from the plan altogether - Corrective motivation goes back and forth between devising a good plan to remove or reduce incongruity and actually carrying out the plan and dealing with other problems (situational constraints, personal inadequacies) - Corrective motivation involves emotion - When people progress toward ideal state slower than expected= negative emotions (anxiety, frustration, despair) - When people progress toward ideal state faster than expect = positive emotions (happy, hope, excitement, joy) Discrepancy - Discrepancy (difference/incongruity) can be represented by the arrow that shows the difference or mismatch between one’s present ideal and one’s ideal state Present State -------------------Ideal State - Present state = person’s current status of how life is going - Ideal state = person wishes life was going - When present state falls short=discrepancy created. Discrepancy has the motivational properties than the ideal state. Discrepancy creates the sense of wanting to change the present ideal - For example: o Present state Ideal state Stuck in traffic driving without interference - The awareness of a mismatch creates a want that motivates people to take action necessary to remove that bothersome discrepancy Two Types of Discrepancy - Discrepancy Reduction, which is a discrepancy-detecting feedback that underlies plans and corrective motivation o Environment (a boss, scholarship opportunity) provides feedback about how well or how poorly the person’s current performance level matches up with the ideal performance level. For example: a student might read in a brochure that his current GPA 2.0 is not enough for scholarship eligibility, a 3.0 is needed. o Therefore, the environment brings some standard of excellence (ideal state) to the person’s awareness and asks, “are you currently performing at this desired level?” o Discrepancy reduction corresponds to a plan-based corrective motivation o It is reactive, deficiency overcoming and revolves around a feedback system - Discrepancy Creation, is based on a feed-forward system in which the person looks forward and proactively sets a future, higher goal - The person sets a higher goal (an ideal state that does not exist except in the performer’s mind) and does not require feedback from a boss or scholarship to force it. o Example: the student might decide to try for a 3.0 GPA. Therefore the person motivates himself to set a new high goal to pursue o Discrepancy creation corresponds to a goal setting motivation o Discrepancy creation is proactive, growth pursuing and revolves around “feed-forward system” - It is the discrepancy between discrepancy reduction and discrepancy creation that provides motivational basis for action Goal Setting - Goals generate motivation by focusing people’s attention on the discrepancy (or incongruity) between their present level of accomplishment and their ideal level of accomplishment o This discrepancy between present level of accomplishment and ideal level of accomplishment is refered to as a “goal-performance discrepancy” Goal-Performance Discrepancy - People with goals outperform those without goals - People who create goals for themselves and people who accept the goals others set for them perform better than those who do not create or accept such goals - Goal setting generally enhances performance, but the type of goals one sets is a determinant in the extent to which a goal translates into performance gains, as goals vary in how difficulty they are and how specific they are Goal Difficulty - As goals increase in difficulty, performance increases the same way - The more difficult the goal, the more it energizes the performer - Easy goals stimulate little effort, medium goals stimulate moderate effort, difficult goals stimulate high effort - Effort responds to the importance of the goal difficulty, therefore effort responds to the importance of the goal-performance discrepancy Goal Specificity - refers to how clearly a goal informs the performer precisely what he is to do - “do your best” is not a clear statement as to what the person is to do. On the nd other hand telling a writer for example, first draft due in one week, 2 draft due in two weeks and final due in 3 weeks is more precise as to what the writer is to do - goal specificity is important because specific goals draw attention to what one needs to do and reduces the vagueness in thought and variability in performance - a vague thought would be “read the chapter” but “read the chapter, take notes, review it, and form a study group to discuss” is not a vague thought - a vague performance goal would be “work quickly” or “read a lot” compared to “complete the task in 3 mins” or “rea
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