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Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5 NOTES - Motivation

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

CHAPTER 5: LEARNED MOTIVES: CLASSICAL, INSTRUMENTAL, & OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Pavlovian Classical Conditioning • in the process of classical conditioning, a formerly neutral stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response from an organism because it has been associated with some other stimulus that usually rather automatically elicited that response in the past • Pavlov was originally interested in studying the digestive process, particularly the role of salvation in digestion • he knew that a dog would begin salivating if given meat powder so when he wanted his dogs to salivate, he would present meat powder to them • he noticed that some dogs began salivating as soon as he brought them into the experimental room • he recognized he was witnessing an interesting phenomenon and he was determined to study it in detail • a dog was put into a harness, and the salivary bland was connected so that the amount of salvation could be measured • he presented meat powder and some neutral stimulus e.g. A bell together to the dog • the meat powder of course elicited salivation in the dog; but after a few pairings of the bell and meat powder, the bell alone would elicit salivation • UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS): e.g. The meat powder in the example, its effect on behaviour was unlearned or automatic • UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR): e.g. The salivation response to the meat powder again to indicate the unlearned nature of this respond to the UCS • CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS): the bell, because it was originally neutral but developed a response by association with the UCS • CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR): the ability to elicit a response to indicate that learning was involved (the bell eliciting a response) • it is important to realize that the CR and UCR are both salivation in this example • they are considered to be different responses • UCR occurs automatically to the presentation of UCS, while the CR develops only after several pairings of the CS and CS MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 1 • if we remove the UCS (e.g. Meat powder) and present the CS alone (e.g. Bell), the CR will continue to occur for a while however eventually it will lead to extinction which is a process in which the CS (e.g. Bell) no longer reliably elicits a response • an important aspect of the classical conditioning of motivated states is that the organism is passive in the learning process • if conditions are right, the learning will occur whether we want it to or not • this suggests that some maladaptive behaviours e.g. Phobias may be learned via accidental pairings of neutral stimuli and negative emotional or motivational states Experimental Neurosis • Pavlov was conducting an experiment to determine the ability of dogs to discriminate between the shapes of different objects • projected on a screen was either a luminous circle or a luminous ellipse • the circle (CS) was accompanied by feeding (UCS), and salivation (R & UCR) was measured • the dog quickly learned to salivate at the sight of the circle • he then began to change the axes of the ellipse so that it more closely approximated a circle • eventually they were changed to a 9:8 ratio and the conditioned response disappeared altogether • the behaviour of the dogs started to appear similar to neurotic behaviour seen in humans • the experimental neurosis generated by the discrimination experiment was apparently the result of the difficult discrimination • the dogs reluctance to enter the room indicated a motivation to avoid the frustrating situation • John Watson and Rossalie Rayner conditioned a small boy to fear a white rat • the infant was 9 months old at the start for the experiment • at first the baby showed no fear to a variety of objects except a loud sound made by a hammer • the sound made by striking it was thus a UCS for the emotional response/UCR of fear • a white rat (CS) was presented to him and just as he touched it the bar was struck • after only two pairings, Albert stopped reaching out for the rat • after 7 pairings, Albert began to cry upon presentations of the rat • they also presented him with similar objects such as rabbit, a dog, and a fur coat, and he began rying for all three • He still showed this behaviour 30 days later but the reasons were less intense MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 2 • classically conditioned emotional responses can be relatively permanent Elimination of Motivated Behaviours through Conditioning • just as motivation may result from the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an emotion-arousing unconditioned stimulus, so may reactions be eliminated in a similar manner • Mary was able to eliminate a fear reaction to furry objects in a 3 year old boy named peter by pairing the feared object with a positive UCS • thus she showed that classical conditioning could be used to reduce fears as well as produce them • this is called counter conditioning (in which the negative CS is paired with a strongly positive UCS) • in addition to extinction of the response produced by the original CS-UCS relationship, a new positive response is generated to replace it • counter-conditioning is generally preferred over extinction procedures because it provides a specific positive response to replace the negative conditioned response • Wolpe developed a therapeutic technique termed systematic desensitization that employs counter-conditioning as part of its procedures in systematic desensitization the patient is first taught to relax on command and once the person can relax on command, a list of anxiety producing situations that involve the CS is made • the list called an anxiety hierarchy is arranged from least anxiety producing to most • the individual needs to think about the least anxiety producing thing while relaxing until they an think about the most arousing situation and at the same time relax: this is called being desensitized • thus, through the pairing of a negative CS (e.g. Some anxiety-arousing though) with a positive UCS (the command to relax) the negative state loses its aversiveness Introceptive Conditioning • introceptive conditioning is defined by Raran as classical conditioning in which either the CS, UCS, or both are applied directly to the internal organs or the mucosa • three types of introceptive conditioning has been demonstrated • INTERO-EXTEROCEPTIVE CONDITIONING o the CS is applied internally, while the UCS is applied externally o a female dog had a rubber balloon, through which cool water could be inserted into the uterus o paired with the CS of cool water was the presentation of food, which of course elicited salivation as the UR o in 6-9 trials the cool water began eliciting salivation and became a stable response after 25 pairings MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 3 o that the cool water was indeed the stimulus controlling the CR was shown by the fat that the dog could learn to discriminate water temperature, salivating when cool water was integrating through the balloon but not salivating when warm water was irrigated • INTERO-INTEROCEPTIVE CONDITIONING o occurs when both the CS and the UCS are applied internally o Loops were formed in the intestines of several dog and could then be manually distended o CS: distensions of the interstitial loops which was paired with UCS: the delivery of CO2 to the lungs o inhalation of CO2 leads to changes in respiration rate o conditioning occurred after only 3-6 pairings of intestinal distension and CO2 inhalation and became stable after 5-16 trials o thus intestinal distension acquired the ability to produce defensive breathing in dogs • EXTERO-INTEROCEPTIVE CONDITIONING o occurs when an external CS is paired with an internal UCS o human participants hospitalized because of urinary complications volunteered to have balloons inserted in their bladders o a series of dials was connected so the patient could see whether the balloon was being inflated or not o the dials served as an external CS which was paired with an internal UCS of bladder distention o inflation of the balloon led to reports of a strong urge to urinate o then they disconnected the dials and the patients still reported strong urges to urinate when he dial reading ere high even though balloon inflation was absent o this indicates that the dial readings have become conditioned stimuli that elicits the internal response of the urge to urinate o or for example the sound of running water is an external stimulus that is always associated with urination (has become a CS for urination) Implications of Interoceptive Conditioning • we are usually unaware of interoceptive conditioning when it occurs • some of our behaviour will be unconscious to the extent that it is the result of interoceptive conditioning • it cannot be avoided, we carry the stimuli with us no matter where we go • is more permanent and more resistant to extinction than typical external classical conditioning • thus is can have long-term effects on our behaviour • it also has important implications for psychosomatic medicine Learning Aversions • research associated with the topic of learned aversions has appeared under a variety of headings • sometimes it is termed long-delay learning or taste-aversion learning MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 4 • learned aversions seems the more appropriate heading for our purposes because it emphasized the motivational nature of the learned behaviours • rats are difficult to poison because once poisoned they will avoid the bait that made them ill • one group had the opportunity to drink water and an audiovisual display occurred that consisted of a flashing light and clicking sounded • another group got either sweet or salty water and were given a shock • the important point of the experiment was that the taste cues were associated easily with illness but not with the foot-shock • the audiovisual cues were readily associated with shock but not with illness • it would be adaptive for them to associate tastes and illness quickly, while they ave little advantage to associate taste with some external painful noise • on the other hand, stimulation of vision and hearing would provide info about he external environment and would be useful is associated with externally harmful events such as pain to the foot • the taste aversion research just mentioned indicates that animals are predispose to learn some associations more readily than others • this concept leads to the idea that there are biological constraints on what can be learned • at one end of the continuum are events that can be easily and quickly associated (prepared associations) • at the other extreme are associations that an organism apparently cannot learn (contra prepared associations) • between the two are said to be unprepared associations (can be learned, although numerous experiences with the events are necessary for an association to be formed) • the preparedness hypothesis argues that different species will have evolve different prepared, unprepared, and contra-prepared associations as a result of selection pressures of evolution • in another study the monkey s were made ill after eating circular ones but not bar shaped cookies • then were tested in total darkness so that visual cues could not be used • The monkeys discriminate the shapes by touch! Learned Taste Aversions in Cancer Patients • several drugs used in the treatment of cancer produce side effects of nausea and vomiting • they also suffer loss of appetite • they designed a study to determine if this loss of appetite might be a learned aversion that develops as the result of associating the taste of food eaten before the nausea-inducing chemotherapy • chose 41 participants of different ages MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 5 • one group receives a new unusual tasting ice cream before the drug treatment • one group was given no ice cream prior • a third group serving as a control received a drug that did not produce nausea and vomiting • the group that received the ice cream showed an aversion to the ice cream when offered it 2-4 weeks later • neither of the to control groups showed any aversion to the ice cream • most of the children knew vomiting were results of their drug therapy, yet aversion to the ice cream still developed • conditioned aversions may partially account for changes int he eating patterns of caner patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments • there is also evidence that the vomiting often associated with chemotherapy can become conditioned to stimulate he environment • thus the stimuli of the doctor's office, smells, tastes, or even thoughts about it can come to elicit nausea-inducing • a group of researchers wanted to determine whether progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMRT) and guided relaxation imagery (GI) could be used to present the development of conditioned nausea-inducing two groups were used • one group received training in these techniques and the other group didn't • the results of the study showed that PMRT and GI training reduced the feelings of nausea during the chemotherapy sessions • the vomiting produced by chemotherapy can be very aversive and in some cases severe enough to lead the patient to refuse treatments • Burish and his associates propose that PMRT and GI interfere with the development of conditioned nausea and vomiting by diverting attention from the chemotherapy context and thus blocking conditioning to those contextual cues • a second mechanism noted is the reduction of muscle contractions along the gastrointestinal track • PMRT and Gi may reduce these contractions and they reduce anxiety- arousing Instrumental Conditioning • instrumental or operant conditioning is the reinforcement of appropriate responses • classical conditioning results from the association of stimuli, while operant conditioning occurs as a consequence of a response • the consequences of a response strengthen the connection between the response and some stimulus in the environment • the strengthening of this connection was termed the law of effect, clearly the forerunner of our present concept of reinforcement MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 6 • skinner emphasized the idea that reinforcement's role is not so much to strengthen a connection between a stimulus and a response but rather to strengthen the response itself, making its occurrence more probable • hypothetical example: a student discovers that hard work and good grades are consistently followed by strong praise from parent • if the praise is a strong reinforcer, the child will become motivated to work hard in order to obtain more praise from the parents • we can generalize the example a little further and note that society rewards and punishes us for certain behaviours • each society has different ideas of what is acceptable • we can manipulate the reinforcement in several ways e.g. Alter the quantity of reinforcement and determine if large vs small rewards motivate behaviour • we can vary the quality of reinforcement • we can impose different time delays between the response and reinforcement Quantity, Quality, and Contrasts of Reinforcement • different groups of rats received different amounts of reinforcement for running down an alleyway • rats that received larger rewards ran faster r • the greater the quantity, the better the performance • amount of reinforcement effect (AOR): the positive correlation between amount of reinforcement and performance • based on these studies we can conclude that increasing amounts of reinforcement usually lead to more intense or vigorous behaviour but not does seem to lead to greater persistence of behaviour • in fact large reinforcements lead animals to stop responding more quickly when reinforcement is withdrawn in extinction • the motivational effect of amount of reinforcement is short-lived, it increases performance as long as it is present, but behaviour is quickly reduced in its absence • the quality of reinforcement affect (QOR) has been found in many experimental situations including complex mazes and runways • the group that had been previously receiving the large amount performed worse than the control group, which had been receiving this amount all long, this is called: negative contrast • the original small-reward group performed better than the controls when switched to the medium amount of reinforcement, this effect is called: positive contrast • positive and negative contrast effects have important implications for the motivation of behaviour because they show that the history of reinforcement influences responding on current conditions of reinforcement (e.g. The switch from high amount of pellets to low amount of pellets) MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 7 • contrast effects also occur when the QUALITY of reinforcement is changed in the experiments • latent learning is the learning in the absence of any reinforcement • one group of rats was reinforced with food for learning and a second group received nothing • when food was later provided at the end of the maze, the performance of the non-reinforced group quickly matched that of the group that had been rewarded throughout • this indicates that the non-reinforced rats had learned the maze but were not inclined to demonstrate this learning until there was some motivation to do so • the important of the latent learning experiment was to argue that the effect of reinforcement is on performance (motivation) rather than on learning • change in quantity, quality, and particularly contrasts between different levels of quantity and quality have large effects on motivation Primary & Conditioned Reinforcement • reinforcer: increases the probability of the response that it follows • primary reinforcers: increase a response because of their nature e.g. Food, water, sex, avoiding pain • secondary/conditioned reinforcers: come to control responding because they have been associated with primary reinforces in the past Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers • a generalized conditioned reinforcer gains its reinforcing properties from the several primary reinforcements with which it has been paired with • it can become somewhat independent of any individual primary reinforcer and strengthen or maintain behaviour for a long time even though not often paired with primary reinforcement e.g. Money Tokens and Token Economies • money is a token that serves as a reminder of the other reinforcers it will buy • chimpanzees have been taught to use tokens that could be traded for grapes • in a token economy, tokens are used as reinforcers for appropriate behaviour and can later be exchanged for various reinforcers and opportunities • tokens reduced a 10 year old boy's chronic throat clearing • woman had a history of wandering off pathways and researchers paid the women and after 6 months she stopped wandering completely • in another study trading stamps were given to mine employees for working without accidents • they could then be redeemed for various items at redemption stores MOTIVATION CHAPTER 5 page 8 • the token economy promoted safe behaviour by awarding stamps, and punished accidents and injuries by withholding stamps • the groups tamp awards created a situation in which an accident or injury to any member caused the group stamp award to be loss for all members • cost of injuries dropped dramatically which means that this had a large effect on behaviours associated with accidents and injuries • token economies may be more effect in situations where verbal methods are ineffective or difficult Classical-Operant In
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