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Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6 NOTES - Motivation

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2230
Professor
Frank Marchese
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 6: INCENTIVE MOTIVATION Introduction • goal object: incentive that motives you • value: incentives differ in value for us from moment to moment and from one time to another • incentives motivate behaviour • incentives are not “wired in”, they are learned • thoughts: can serve as incentive motivators • objects or events can modify and influence our behaviour over and above physical needs • incentive motivation may be thought of as a mediator (M) that comes between the stimulus characteristics (S) and some goal object and the responses (R) that are directed toward that object • S (STIMULUS) -> M (MEDIATOR) -> R (RESPONSE) • this linkage actually consists of two separate links, one between the stimulus and the mediator (S->M) and one between the mediator and the response (M->R) • each link may be separately influenced by the conditions in situations where incentives are present, so the possible outcomes of manipulating incentive motivation can be complex Incentives as Energizers • Crespi trained rats to run down an alleyway to get pellets of food • one group got a large reward, one group got a small reward and a third group which was the control received 16 pellets throughout the whole experiment • then he switched the large and small reward groups to get 16 pellets, now all 3 groups get 1 5pellets • the large-reward group who is now getting smaller rewards, slowed down in relation to the control group • the small-reward group now getting a larger reward, quickly began running faster compared to the control • behaviour change drastically when the incentives were changes Incentive Motivation (K) • in the early 1950s theorists began to incorporate the concept of incentive motivation into their explanations of behavioural if a goal an influence behaviour even before that goal is reached, organism must in some way come to anticipate the availability of the goal Hull-Spence and RG SG • because of the general similarity of their approaches, we will consider Hull and Spence together MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 1 • both used the symbol K for incentive motivation in their formulas for behaviour, and both assumed that the incentive value of a goal object could be indexed by the vigour of response is elicited • a large reward should lead to more vigorous chewing and swallowing than a small award • the consummatory response (RG): does not occur in a vacuum • stimuli present when RG occurs will become associated with it (via classical conditioning) and will tend, after a few trials, to elicit RG directly • for example the texture and wall brightness in the start box of a maze will elicit Rg before the goal • but the rat would not respond with a full-blown RG (chewing and swallowing) nonexistent food • for this reason the goal box would only elicit a: partial consummatory response/fractional anticipatory response (which would not interfere with the instrumental responses required in order to reach the food) • this approach further assumed that the organism could sense it was making these RG's • close your eyes and hold your right arm straight, then bend your elbow 90 degrees • even if you have your eyes closed you still now that your arm is bent because of sensory feedback from your arm muscles • sensory feedback in the form of stimuli (partial response stimulus feedback/SG) inform the organism it is making Rgs • the occurrence of these partial responses and their stimuli (fractional anticipatory response mechanism, commonly called the RG-SG mechanism) serves to motivate the instrumental responses that must be made in order to get to the goal box and engage in the RG • this explanation is a MECHANICAL ONE • through the process of classical conditioning, the stimuli in the environment come to elicit small parts of the final RG • the model assumes no thinking on the part of the rat • we could program a computer to behave similarly • RG-SG occurs throughout the path from start box to gal box, to the extent that stimuli are similar along the way • as the organism approaches the goal area, more and more stimuli should occur that have been associated with RG; thus RG-SG should increase and increasingly motivate ongoing behaviour • but what if stimuli are different in the beginning than at the goal? The stimuli associated with RG and thus develop RG-SG do not have to be external to the organism e.g. The sensation we feel when hungry- are with us all the way from start to goal- and because they are present when RG occurs, they should also elicit a fractional anticipatory response (RG) MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 2 The Persistence of Behaviour • behaviour persists even in the face of difficulty e.g. When a student does not do well on a test, studies even harder for the next one Amsel and rf-sf • Amsul was interested in the question of what happens when a rat reaches a goal where it has been rewarded in the past and now finds nothing an unlearned frustration response occurs (RF) • any stimuli at the time of RF occurs will tend to become associated with it, and if these stimuli also occur earlier in the sequence of events, they will elicit partial/anticipatory frustration responses (rf) • as with RG-SG the organism knows it is making these responses because of feedback stimuli (frustration response stimulus feedback- sf) • these partial frustration responses cause the animal to stop its present behaviour and engage in some other behaviour-leading to competing responses that take the organism off in new and perhaps more adaptive directions • suppose that we design our situation so that competing responses are difficult to make and also arrange that whatever original responses can be made have been followed by reward in the past • Amsel proposed that the partial frustration responses (rf) and their associated stimulus feedback (sf) become counter-conditioned to the responses the organism is making • counter-conditioning: the motivation generated by the frustration of non-reward gets channelled into the very response that causes the frustration • in other words, the rf-sf mechanism serves as a motivator for ongoing behaviour, just as rg-sg would under other circumstances • when might such circumstances just described occur? They occur when an animal/person is put on a partial reinforcement schedule (PRF) • e.g. If studying has been reinforced in the past, but studying this time didn’t work, then frustration should develop • rats reinforced on a PRF persist in responding longer when the reinforcer is taken away than when they have been reinforced for every response (a continuous reinforcement schedule/CRF) How might frustration theory account for this persistence? • The continuous reinforcement group (CRF) is rewarded on every trial (rg-sg should build up and motivate the necessary responses for reaching the goal) • the partial reinforcement group (rg-sg would build up too, although more slowly, on those training trials that are rewarded. In addition, rf-sf would build up on trials that went unrewarded. For the partial reinforcement group then, we have two MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 3 sources of incentive motivation on every trial. Rg-Sg (built up on rewarded trials) and Rf-Sf (built up on non-rewarded trials) •In extinction the CRF group responds and goes unrewarded • this leads to Rf and thus to rf-sf and the development of competing responses •if the reward has been permanently removed, the incentive effects of Rg-Sg will die out rather quickly and become replaced by Rf-Sf and competing responses •because Rf-Sf has never been counter-conditioned in CRF animals, its occurrence will not cause the running responses to continue but will lead to a quick cessation of responding-because Rg-Sg is no longer present to sustain the correct responses- and Rf-Sf will elicit competing responses •continuously reinforced animals will stop responding rather quickly •the partially reinforced group has two sources of motivation that have been connected to the responses no longer being rewarded •the rg-sg part will die out, but the responding will continue longer in this group because it is sustained by the motivation generated by Rf-Sf •partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is the well-known fat that partially reinforced responses are more persistent than continuously reinforced responses •frustration will channel into ongoing behaviour and make it more persistent if that behaviour has been rewarded at some time in the past; otherwise it will lead to competing behaviour that will reduce persistence •thus the type of behaviour actively depends on earlier experienced with reward and non-reward •rats ran from the start box to goal box 1;where they were fed, then thy ran alley 2 to goal box 2 to get additional food •after the rats were trained on this procedure, food was sometimes withdrawn from goal box 1 •Amsel hypothesized this should lead to Rf which would show up as faster running in alley 2 on non-reinforced trials •non-reward following a response that has been regularly reinforced in the past does energize behaviour does frustrative non-reward lead to competing behaviour? •Two groups of rats were taught to run to a goal box to get food •later the food was withheld •one group of rats was allowed to retrace its path from the goal-box to the start box •the second group as allowed to scape from the situation by jumping out of the goal box •the rats allowed to retrace the path quickly extinguished while the rats allowed to jump out continued to run to the goal box for many trials •for both groups the frustration of non-reward led to new responses MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 4 • the rats allowed to retrace developed a new response that competed with the old running response- and they extinguished quickly • rats allowed to jump out-competition between this response and the running response did not occur- and they extinguished much more slowly • thus frustrative non-reward does seem to produce new responses that can compete with previously learned responses • a study by Ross provides strong support for both the energizing effects of frustration and the incorporation of this energy into behaviours present at the time frustration occurs • 6 groups of rats trained to make one of three responses in order to get food • 3 groups received 100% continuous reinforcement and 3 groups received 50% partial reinforcement • 2 groups they had to run to the food well, 2 groups they had to jump a gap in the floor, 2 groups they had to climb a wire mesh (one group in each pair continuously reinforced and the other group was partially reinforced) • all three responses were about equal in difficulty and learned at approximately the same rate • Amsel's frustration theory predicts that the animals in the three partially reinforced groups should experience frustration on NON-reinforced trials and that the resulting rf-sf should become conditioned to whatever response the rats had to learn to get to the goal (running, jumping, or climbing) • in a second part of the experiment, all six groups were taught to run for water in an experimental chamber different from that used in phase 1 and were reinforced 100% of the time • the running response to water was extinguished in the final stage of the experiment • for the animals taught to RUN in phase 1, the frustration reinstated during extinction should lead to INCREASED persistence, because running was the correct response in phase 2, and rf-sf should channel into the ongoing response • for animals taught to jump in phase 1, the frustration by extinction should interfere with running and reduce resistance to extinction • for animals taught to climb, frustration should all up the climbing response, which should seriously interfere with the running response, and extinction should occur quickly • Amsel's frustration theory is an incentive theory because the presence or absence of the goal influences the motivation of the organism • anticipatory frustration responses and their stimulus feedback (rf-sf) may lead to the energizing of competing behaviour or to the activation of instrumental behaviour, depending on the circumstances • the persistence of behaviour is established according to the organism’s past history with the incentive • persistence developed whenever organisms learn to approach or to continue responding despite stimuli that would normally disrupt behaviour MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 5 • this occurs because the disruptive stimuli become counter-conditioned to the ongoing responses in the situation Incentives as Generators of Emotion • we will examine Mowrer's theory as one alternative to the rg-sg approach because he proposes that incentive motivation mediates between stimulus and response by creating emotional states Mowrer: Fear, Hope, Relief, and Disappointment • he said that incentive motivation is closely tied to the learning of emotional responses • the four primary emotions involved are: fear, hope, relief, and disappointment • according to him, any increase in drive e.g. Motivation from electric shock or food deprivation leads to the emotion of fear • the emotional responses associated with the state of fear will become connected to any stimuli that are also present at the time the emotion occurs • after several pairings, the stimuli becomes cues that signal the approach of an increase in drive and create a state of fear before the actual arrival of the increased drive state • this conditioned fear then motivates the organism to make whatever responses it can to remove itself from the situation containing the fear cues • the role of reinforcement in Mowrer's system is so activate one of the four emotions rather than to influence instrumental responses directly • learning alters what the organism wants to do rather what the organism can do • decrease of drive e.g. Full stomach is accompanied by the emotion of hope • stimuli that produce the emotion of hope will activate behaviours that keep the organism in their presence, while stimuli associated with fear will activate avoidance behaviours • when hope is expected (because the cues for it are present) but doesn't come,. It turns into disappointment • disappointment occurs when hope cues that predict a decrease in drive does not lead to an actual reduction in drive • negative state and motivates behaviour that will try to remove the cues that signal disappointment • relief occurs when cues that signal an increase in drive are taken away • stimuli present at the time the fear cues are removed will become relief signals • a bell ending a difficult lab class could become a cue if the stimuli associated with the class have become fear cues • cues associated with the triggering of emotion eventually become capable for triggering the emotion before the emotion-producing eventually MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 6 • Miller noted that although the system can account for much behaviour once behaviours start occurring, it does not explain how behaviour is triggered the first time • once a rat has learned that cues in the start box of a maze are associated with hope because food is in the goal box, behaviour will continue, but what causes the mat to go through the maze the first time? Incentives as Carriers of Information • Mowrer's approx suggests that informational stimuli generate emotions that in turn lead to approach or withdrawal behaviour in the situation • other theorists say that emotions are not seen as the instigators of behaviour but as cues that predict/provide information about the goal and direct behaviours toward that goal Tolman: Cognitive Formulations • the approaches examined so far have emphasized mechanical explanations of incentive effects on behaviour- Tolman argued that incentive motivation results from the development of: expectancies • while those researchers attempted to reduce behaviour to the smallest possible unit (an approach called reductionism), Tolman took a much more holistic view • Tolman was less concerned with the particular muscular responses made on the way to the goal than with the fact that organisms worked to obtain goals • he viewed behaviour as purposive, rats as well as humans, he tough, develop expectations that particular behaviours will lead to particular goals • Tolman said that different goals have different values for an organism • e.g 3 different rat groups: group given bread and milk performed better than a second group given sunflower seeds • Latent learning is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behaviour or associations that are learned • these studies attempted to show that reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur • another study showed how goal objects exert different amounts of demand on performances, or that incentives differ in value • the study had 3 groups: first group got food at the end of the maze and learned to run quickly and avoid errors • second group received nothing and its performance showed little indication of having learning anything • third group got food only after the 11 trial, their performance rapidly improved Expectancy MOTIVATION CHAPTER 6 page 7 • important aspect of Tolman's view was that incentive objects influence behaviour only if they are experienced ENOUGH times so that a cognitive expectation is built up • cognitive expectation means that after several experiences with a goal, the organism realizes that particular behaviours leads to that goal in the future • what would happen if you change the incentives after an expectation has been acquired? It leads to a disruption of behaviour, ESPECIALLY when the changes is from a more demanded to a less demanded incentive • e.g. Monkeys observed an experimenter placed food under one of two containers, than they were required to choose the correct container to obtain the reward • sometimes they would change the banana to a less preferred substance such as lettuce • when the monkeys discovered the lettuce, they didn't eat it and sometimes shrieked at the experimenter as if angry • disruption of the normal, learned behaviour of choosing the container under which the monkey had seen food placed indicated ha ta cognitive expectation of obtaining a bit of banana had developed • Tolman presented a model of incentive motivation that emphasized the buildup of expectancies concerning the behaviours that will lead to certain goals • positive incentives are approached and negative incentives are avoided • more highly valued incentives ene
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