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Chapter Thirteen.docx

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York University
PSYC 2240
Pauline Charlton

Chapter ThirteenClassical Conditioning pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them Pavlov 1927Conditioned Stimulus initially elicits no response of note ie bellUnconditioned Stimulus food automatically elicitsUnconditioned Responsesalivationafter some timea new learned response to the CS called a conditioned response salivation Operant Conditioning individuals response is followed by a reinforcer or punishment SkinnerReinforcer any event that increases future probability of the responsePunishment an event that supresses the frequency of a responseIn operant conditioning the individuals response determines the outcome either reinforcer or punisher whereas in classical conditioning the CS and UCS will be presented at a certain time independent of the individuals behaviour Behaviour is useful however in anticipating the effects of the UCSLashleyEngram the physical representation of what has been learned a connection between two brain areas exampleIf learning depends on new or strengthened connections between two areas a knife cut somewhere in the brain should interrupt that connection of abolish the learned responseLearning and memory apparently did not rely on a single cortical areaLashley then proposed two principles about the nervous system o Equipotentialityall parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviours such as learning any part of the cortex can substitute for any other o Mass action the cortex works as a whole and the more cortex the betterThompsonOne nucleus of the cerebellum the lateral interpositus nucleus LIP No evidence of learning while the LIP was supressed Training had no effectSuppressing the red nucleus temporarily prevents the response but does not prevent learningResearchers concluded that learning occurred in the LIP it was the last structure in the sequence that had to be awake for learning to occurLIP has to be intact not only during learning but during later tests it is necessary for learning and retentionPeople who have damage to cerebellum have weaker conditioned eye blink blinks are less accurately timed relative to onset of air puffHebbNo one mechanism could account for all phenomena of learningUnlikely that any chemical process could occur fast enough to account for immediate memory yet remain stable enough to provide permanent memory He distinguished betweenShort term memory of events that have just occurredLong term memory of events from previous timesShort term memory and long term memory differ in their capacity Their distinctionsLearning something new doesnt mean forgetting something old to make roomShortterm memory fade if unrehearsed providing meaningful context helps rememberWith short term memory if you forget it its gone Even if there are hints or cluesBaddleyHitchWorking memory the way we store information while we are working with it or attending to it Three components of it o Phonological loop stores auditory information including words o Visuospatial sketchpad stores visual information o Central executive directs attention towards one stimulus or another and determines which will be stored in working memoryVerbal memory seems to be independent of visual memory
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