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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes Biological Psychology.doc

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York University
PSYC 2240
Ravi Naimpally

Biological Psychology Chapter 10 Notes Internal RegulationModule 101 Temperature RegulationHomeostasis and Allostasis HomeostasisTemperature regulation and other biological processes that keep body variables within a fixed range Ex thermostat in house with heating and coolingSet Point When range is narrow between variables ex physiological and behavioral activities Single value that the body works to maintainMechanisms in your body maintain constant blood levels of water oxygen glucose sodium chloride protein fat and acidityNegative FeedbackProcesses that reduce discrepancies from the set point Motivated behavior something happens to cause disturbance behavior varies until it relieves disturbanceAllostasisVariable and standingAdaptive way in which the body changes its set points depending on situationEx Animals and humans change temperate during day and body fat during seasonsControlling Body TemperatureAverage young adult expends about 2600 kilocalories per dayBasal Metabolism Use two thirds of your energy Energy used to maintain a constant body temperature while at restPiokilothermic Amphibians reptiles and most fishBody temperate matches the temperature of the environment Lack physiological mechanisms of temperature regulation shivering and sweatingHomoeothermic Mammals and birdsThey become piokilothermic when they hibernateMaintain nearly constant body temperature despite changes in temperature of the environment Use both behavioral and physiological mechanisms to control body temperature Homeothermy is costly for small animals Animal generates heat in proportion to total massRadiates heat in proportion to its surface areaThe Advantages of Constant High Body TemperatureLower body temperature live longer than high temperature For fish as water gets colder they fast twitch their muscle fibers to remain activeBirdsMammals keep muscles warm at all timesMammal body temp37 degreesBeyond 40 degrees proteins break bonds and lose properties Thermopiles can survive close to boiling but need extra bondsReproductive cells require cooler environmentex birds sit on eggs because internal temp is too hot Brain Mechanisms Shivering sweating changes in blood flow physiological changes depend on areas of hypothalamus Anterior and preoptic area
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