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PSYC 2240 (49)

Ch 2 of Bio Basis

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PSYC 2240
Pauline Charlton

Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses 21 The cells of the nervous systemAnatomy of neurons and glia The nervous system has two types of cells neurons and glia Neurons receive information and transmit signals to other cells The human brain has around 100B neurons Santiago Ramon y Cajal were the first people to stain and show small gaps from one neuron to the next determining individual cells The Structures of an Animal Cell The surface of the cell has a membrane composed of two layers of fat molecules The membrane permits the flow of H20 O2 Na K Ca Cl and other chemicals Neurons also have a nucleus which stores the chromosomes They also have a mitochondria ribosomes where the cell synthesizes new protein and a endoplasmic reticulum where some ribosomes are attached The Structure of a Neuron Large neurons have dendrites a soma axon and presynaptic terminal some small neurons will lack axons or a WELLDEFINED dendrite Motor Neurons soma is in the spinal cord and gets excited from the dendrites of other neurons which sends information to the axons which then creates an impulse to our muscles Sensory Neurons Is highly sensitive to stimulations like light sound or touchThese impulses are sent from the axons onto the soma located on a little stalk off of the main trunkDendrites branching fibers which get narrow to the endsThe surface has synaptic receptors which is where the dendrite receives information from other neurons Dendritic spines some dendrites have this are short outgrowths that increase surface area available for synapse
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