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PSYC 2510 (64)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Intelligence and Psychological Testing.pdf

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York University
PSYC 2510
Agnieszka Kopinska

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Monday, January 23, 212:09 PM Intelligence - Psychological tests are used to assess an aspect of behavior (e.g., intelligence) ○ Standardized ○ Measure individual differences among people ○ Results should be interpreted with care Types of tests - Ability tests ○ Cognitive ability (intelligence)  Aptitudes ○ Achievement - Personality tests ○ Traits, motives, attitudes Standardization & norms - Standardization-- uniform use, established protocol - Norms - Percentiles Psychometric properties - Reliability ○ Consistency of a test ○ E.g., Test-retest reliability - Validity ○ Test measures what it's supposed to measure  Content  Criterion-related  Construct - Video: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5006397305426077574# ○ History of intelligence testing ○ Gardner's multiple intelligences ○ Sternberg-- spatial intelligence Theories of intelligence - Spearman --> g ○ General intelligence - Thurstone & Guilford --> g can be broken down into 7-150 main abilities - Cattell & Horn --> g = fluid intelligence (gf) AND crystallized intelligence (gc) ○ Carroll --> Broken down into three strata (layers) WISC-IV sample questions - Similarities (Verbal Reasoning Index) "What do a sculptor and a painter have in common? How are they the same?" ○ "What do a sculptor and a painter have in common? How are they the same?" - Dependent to some extent on prior knowledge - Matrix reasoning (Perceptual Reasoning Index) ○ "Which of these pieces down here best completes the puzzle?" - Digit span (Working Memory Index) ○ "Tell me the numbers, in order, starting with the lowest number." - Symbol search (Processing Speed) - For most IQ tests, including the WISC-IV, ○ Mean = 100 ○ SD = 15 Psychometric properties - Good reliability in general (~0.90) - Validity ○ Measures of academic/verbal intelligence ○ Sternberg: IQ tests not necessarily valid for other types of intelligence - Culture matters ○ IQ tests are uncommon in non-Western cultures ○ Therefore they don
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