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PSYC 2520 (20)
Chapter 4&5

Ch. 4 & 5 - Methods of Systematic Observation and for Looking Within Ourselves .docx

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PSYC 2520
Josee Rivest

PSYC 2520: Introduction to Experimental Psychology Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer (7th ed.) Rosnow & Rosenthal Chapters 4 and 5: Methods of Systematic Observation & Methods for Looking Within Ourselves ● Quantitative research-- emphasizes numerical data ● Qualitative research-- emphasizes spoken words, prose descriptions of behavior, and pictorial data ● Observational study-- research that is based on direct observation of participants “without any attempt at intervention or manipulation of the behavior being observed” ● One traditional procedure in qualitative research is participant observation, where the term „participant‟ refers to the investigator as opposed to the research participants. ● Observer bias occurs when observers overestimate or underestimate the occurrence of events or “see” things that are not really there because they think those things exist or operate in a particular way ● Four issues to consider when using self-report measures ○ Data might not be dependable due to evaluation apprehension (truthfulness of what people report) ○ Participant's right to privacy (ethical implications) ○ Self-reported data may not be valid or reliable (can depend on memory-- unreliable) ○ Difficult to interpret scores that are not norm-referenced ● Open-ended questions offer the opportunity to express feelings and impressions spontaneously ○ Advantages: ■ a) Does not lead the respondent by suggesting specific answers ■ b) The method is exploratory, allowing the researcher to find out whether the person has anything at all to say ■ c) The participant can answer in his or her own language, which helps to increase rapport ○ Disadvantages: ■ a) They are time-consuming for the researcher (who must record responses) ■ b) They may elicit rambling and off-the-mark responses ■ c) They may be hard to assess for reliability ● Advantages of fixed-choice items: ○ Forces the respondent's answers into the dimensions of interest to the researcher rather than producing irrelevant answers ● Big Five factors of personality: OCEAN ○ Openness to experience ○ Conscientiousness ○ Extraversion ○ Agreeableness ○ Neuroticism ● Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperceptio
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