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Chapter 9

PSYC 3090 Chapter 9: CHAPTER 9
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7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3090
Professor
Krista Trobst

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CHAPTER 9 – INTELLIGENCE AND ITS MEASUREMENT What is Intelligence? Intelligence: multifaceted capacity that manifests itself in different ways across the lifespan, in general includes the abilities to: • acquire + apply knowledge • reason logically • make sound judgments • pay attention etc -most people think it can be recognized as behaviour -cant agree on definition Intelligence Defined: Views of the Lay Public -sternberg study, made people list behaviours they associated with various forms of intelligence + lack of intelligence, most common was reasons logically, reads widely, common sense ,etc -high degree of similarity between experts + laypeople consideration of intelligence, but with academic the experts emphasized motivation -different stages of development = different conception of intelligence -we have notions of intelligence as early as first grade Intelligence Defined: Views of Scholars and Test Professionals -journal of educational psychology 1921, 17 leading psychologists addressed following questions 1. what is intelligence 2. how can it best be measured in group tests 3. what should be the next steps in research -no 2 psychologists agreed Francis Galton -first person to publish on heritability of intelligence, framing nature-nurture debate -believed intelligence based off how well our senses differentiate -speed of information processing + speed of neural conductivity Alfred Binet -reasoning ,judgement, memory + abstraction -intellectual assessment -intelligence number of distinct processes measured by separate tests -can’t determine how much of each process contributes to a task David Wechsler -complexity of intelligence, is aggregate/global capacity to act purposely + think rationally -nonintellective factors that must be taken into account -drive, persistence, perceive + respond to social values etc -WAIS scale, verbal + performance abilities Jean Piaget -development of cognition in children -cognitive skills gained, adaptation level increases -4 stages, as they reached, child has experiences -each new experience requires cognitive organization/reorganization to a schema Schema: organized action or mental structure, that when applied to the world leads to knowing or understanding -schemata is plural -infants born with several simple ones -become more sophisticated with growth -hypothesized learning happens through 2 basic mental operations: 1. assimilation: actively organizing new information so that it fits in with what already is perceived and thought 2. Accommodation: changing what is already perceived or thought so that it fits with new information -stages: 1. Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years, intentional behaviour, recognize world + objects 2. Preoperational period: 2-6 years, understanding concepts on what is seen, animistic thought, thoughts irreversible 3. Concrete operations period: 7-12 years, reversibility of thought, conservation of thought, ordering tasks can be solved, can deal with things that you have direct experience of 4. Formal operations period: 12+ years, abstract + deal with ideas independent of his/her own experience -major theory from binet, Wechsler + piaget is interactionism Interactionism: complex concept by which heredity and environment are presumed to interact and influence the development of one’s intelligence Factor analytic theories: focus is identifying the ability or groups of abilities deemed to constitute intelligence Information-processing theories: focus is on identifying the specific mental processes that constitute intelligence Factor-Analytic Theories of Intelligence -charles spearman, found that measure of intelligence tend to correlate with each other Two-factor theory of intelligence: the existence of a general intellectual ability factor that is partially tapped by all other mental abilities -greater this factor in a test, better test was thought to predict overall intelligence Group factors: intermediate class of factors common to a group of activities but not to all, includes linguistic, mechanical and arithmetical abilities -tried to come up with specific factors, could not -gardner came up with multiple intelligence Interpersonal intelligence: ability to understand other people, what motivates them, how they work, and how to work cooperatively with them Intrapersonal intelligence: capacity to form accurate self-perceptions, to discriminate accurately between emotions and to be able to draw upon one’s emotions as a means of understanding and an effective guide Emotional intelligence: emphasis on the notions of interpersonal + intrapersonal intelligence -whether or not constructs related to empathy + self understanding qualify more for the study of emotion + personality than intelligence is debated -raymond b cattell theory, 2 types of cognitive abilities: 1. crystallized intelligence: acquired skills + knowledge that are dependent on exposure to a particular culture as well as on formal and informal education a. ex retrieval of information + application of general knowledge 2. Fluid intelligence: nonverbal, relatively culture-free, and independent of specific instruction a. Ex memory Vulnerable abilities: cognitive abilities that decline with age and that do not return to pre- injury levels after brain damage -short-term memory, etc Maintained abilities: cognitive abilities that do not decline with age + tend to return to pre- injury levels after brain damage Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities: conception of mental abilities and processing classified by three levels or strata, with g at the broadest level followed by 8 abilities or processes at the second level and a number of more narrowly defined abilities + processes at the third level -this is a hierarchical model Hierarchical model: all of the abilities listed in a stratum are subsumed by or incorporated in the strate above -desire for comprehensive, agreed-upon conceptualization of human cognitibe abilities lead to extracting elements of existing mdoels to create new, more complete model CHC model: Cattell-Horn and Carroll model -blends with the three-stratum theory -has broad abilities + narrow abilities -difference: no general intellectual factor, and whether quantitative knowledge + reading/writing should be considered a distinct, broad ability as they are in cattell-horn -for carroll, all these first-stratum, narrow abilities -mcgrew tried has 10 broad stratum, each having 70+ narrow stratum, which each broad having 2 or more narrow, and omitted g, in order to have psychoeducational assessment to provide comprehensive assessment of ab
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