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PSYC 3090 (54)
Chapter 1

PSYCHOLOGICALMEASUREMENTCHAPTER1.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3090
Professor
peterpappa.
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 1 BRIEF HISTORY OF TESTING EARLIESTTESTING: CIRCA2200 BC earliest documented use of tests usually attributed to the Chinese who tested public officials to ensure competence during Han dynasty written exams were included for the first time and covered five major areas: agriculture, civil law, geography military affairs, and revenue EIGHTEENTHAND NINETEENTH CENTURYTESTING CARLFREDERICH GAUSS (1777-1855) German mathematician who made important contributions in astronomy and the study of magnetism in the course of tracking star movements he found that his colleagues often came up with slightly different locations he plotted the frequency of the observed locations systematically and found the observations to take the slope of a curve- normal distribution he determined that th best estimate of the precise location of a star was the mean of the observations and that each independent observation contained some degree of error PHYSICIANSAND PSYCHIATRISTS in the 19 century physicians and psychiatrists in England and the U.S developed classification systems to help classify individuals with mental retardation and other mental problems in the 1830s Jean Esquirrol was one of the first to distinguish insanity from mental deficiency believed that mental retardation existed on a continuum from mild to profound in the 1890s Emil Kraeplin and others promoted the use of free association tests in assessing psychiatric patients free association tests involve the presentation of stimulus words to which the respondent responds with the first word that comes to mind later Sigmund Freud expanded on the technique encouraging patients to express freely any and all thoughts that came to mind in order to identify underlying thoughts and emotions BrASS INSTRUMENTS ERA ONE of the most important developments of this era was the move toward measuring human abilities using objective measures that that could be easily replicated these early pioneers used a variety of instruments, often made of brass, to measure simple sensory and motor processes based on the assumption that they were measures of general intelligence SIR FRANCIS GALTON often considered the founder of mental tests and measurement establishment of anthropometric laboratory at the International Health Exhibition in London in 1884 during this time data were collected including physical, sensory and motor measurements on over 17,000 people this represented the first large scale systematic collection of data on individual differences JAMES MCKEEN CATTELL shared Galtons belief that relatively simple sensory and motor tests could be used to measure intellectual abilities first to use the term mental tests in an article in 1890 Galton and Cattell also contributed to the development of testing procedures such as standardized questionnaires and rating scales that later became popular techniques in personality assessment CLARK WISSLER one of Cattells students whose research largely discredited the work of his famous teacher found that the sensory motor measures commonly being used to assess intelligence essentially no correlation with academic achievement also found that th sensory motor tests had only weak correlations with one another these findings ended the use of simple sensory motor measures of intelligence and set the stage for a new approach that emphasized more higher order mental process significant methodological flaws in Wissler's research that prevented him from detecting moderate correlations that actually exist between some sensory motor tests and intelligence TWENTIETH CENTURYTESTING ALFRED BINET pioneered the use of measures of higher order cognitive processes to assess intelligence Binet-Simon Scale released in 1905 the scale contained some sensory-perceptual tests, but the emphasis was on verbal items assessing comprehension, reasoning, judgement, and short term memory Binet and Simon developed a test that was good predictor of academic success ushered in the era of intelligence testing ARMYALPHAAND BETATESTS U.S army needed a way to assess and classify recruits as suitable for the military and to classify them for jobs in the military theAPAdeveloped a task force that devised a series of aptitude tests came to be known as the ArmyAlpha andArmy Beta- one was verbal (alpha) and one was nonverbal (beta) ROBERTWOODWORTH 1918 woodworth developed the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, which is widely considered the first formal personality test was designed to help collect personal information about military recruits ushered in the era of personality assessment RORSCHACH INKBLOTTEST 1920s continues to be one of the more popular personality assessment techniques in use at the beginning st of the 21 century COLLEGEADMISSION TESTS SAT in 1926 theAmerican College testing programs (ACT) was initiated in 1959 and is the major competitor of the SAT prior of the advent of these tests, college admission decisions were highly subjective and strongly influenced by family background and status WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALES intelligence test that included measures of verbal ability and non verbal on the same test prior to the Wechsler and the Wechsler Bellevu 1, intelligence tests typically assessed verbal or non verbal, not both most popular intelligence tests in use today MINNESOTAMULTIPHASIC PERSONALITYINVENTORY published in early 1940s to aid in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders it is an objective personality test one of the most popular personality assessments today TWENTY FIRST CENTURYTESTING THE LANGUAGE OFASSESSMENTTESTS, MEASUREMENT,ANDASSESSMENT a test is a device or procedure in which a sample of an individual's behaviour is obtained, evaluated, and scored using standardized procedures a standardized test is a test that is administered, scored, and interpreted in a standard manor most standardized tests are developed by testing professionals or test publishing companies the goal of standardization is to ensure that testing conditions are as nearly the same as is possible for all individuals taking the test measurement is a set of rules for assigning numbers to represent objects, traits, attributes or behaviours assessment is defined as any systematic procedure for collecting information that can be used to make inferences about the characteristics of people or objects tests are one set of tools for assessment reviews of historical records, interviews and observations are also assessment techniques assessment typically refers to a process that involves the integration of information obtained from multiple sources using multiple methods broader, more comprehensive process than testing testing is relatively straightforward process where a specific test is administered to obtain a specific score psycholoGICALassessment integrates multiple scores, typically obtained using multiple tests, with information collected by reviewing records, conducting interviews, and conducting observations these three terms are often used interchangeably assessment has become the preferr
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