Textbook Notes (368,463)
Canada (161,897)
York University (12,849)
Psychology (3,584)
PSYC 3125 (30)
Chapter 6

PSYC 3125 Chapter 6: CHAPTER 6

6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3125
Kate Harper

CHAPTER 6 – PSYCHOLOGISTS AS TESTERS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY, ORDERING SOCIETY -first tests, James Cattell 1890, coined term mental test -adding numbers to psychological qualities quantifies them + makes them scientific objects -fits in with wanting to make psychology practical, social utility + having scientific status -testing was pscyhology’s main endeavors until after WW2 -may seem sexist/misguided now, but people at the time thought they were legitimately helping + wanted to preserve social order Roots of Mental Testing in America -cattell was wundts student -did reaction time, found differences, so became interested in individual differences -wundt wanted to find similarities between people -so cattell worked w/ galton -Galton’s booked hereditary genius, wrote on ‘eminence’ running in families -from this believed mental abilities could also be passed on -galton ignored environmental factors that contributed to eminence -advocate for positive eugenics -galton would test people + identify those likely to be eminent while they were young and could procreate Mental Tests Go To The Fair -World’s Columbian thposition 1893 in Chicago -commemorate 400 anniversary of Columbus voyage -first time psychology was showcased -wanted to show new modern, urban, industrial world -psychology set itself apart from the everyday psychology (phrenology, mesmerism etc) -contributed to education, first psych clinician was to solve educational problems Lightner Witmer + the Preshistory of Clinical Psychology -witmer established first psych clinic at u of Pennsylvania and coined the term clinical psychology -by 1896 established this clinic -didn’t develop theory or methods, just made method called clinical method -1907 published journal the psychological clinic, next year made private school -clinical psychology not profession until after WW2 -he innovated: in-depth assessment, viewed most problems as capable of remediation, was an environmentalist -different from today: didn’t use labels, wanted to understand levels of functioning + design educational interventions -came up with witmer foamboard -social factors like influx of immigrants affected education, lots of children with different backgrounds, levels of ability Sorting the Sexes Complementary hypothesis: women + men differed in the very nature of their mental traits + capacities, with women + men displaying complementary but not directly comparable psychology + intellectual strengths -scientists + lay people both believed this -Helen Woolley got PhD at Uni of Chicago 1900, undertook first large-scale experimental study of sex differences in mental traits, published 1903 called mental traits of sex -found little differences, and on things she did, she cautioned bio reasons because men + women socialized differently -Leta Hollingworth influenced by Woolley, published studies to debunk cultural stereotypes about women -debunked belief that mental + motor performance impaired while menstruating -got phd in 1916, worked as clinical psychologists until 1920 -contributed to programs for gifted children, one of first organizers of American association of clinical psychology (1917), called for professional degree in clinical psych (precursor to PsyD) Variability hypothesis: male species always demonstrates more variability than the female across both physical + psychological traits and therefore drives evolutionary progress -in period after WW1, women psychologists had more applied positions, but not in war efforts Demise of Mental Tests + Rise of IQ -1900s, many challenges to nature + use of anthropometric testing -rise of individual testing, so large scale tests not useful -statistical developments showed that mental tests did not correlate meaningfully with academic achievement/intelligence -still interested in sorting mental abilities -Binet did testing on his children, found no distinguishing between adult + children neurologically -more complex tasks differentiated children + adults (attention + use of language) -came up with the following: 1. Intelligence could take many forms 2. Individuals were unique in their kind of intelligence 3. It was impossible to sum up a persons intelligence in a single number or score a. But wanted to arrive at uniqueness of person in shorter amount of time Individual psychology: research program in which Binet + Henri sought to develop a set of tests of psychological processes that could provide a complete picture of a person’s abilities -worked through 10 faculties, didn’t work -Binet given task by government to identify children in need of special education -came up with “mental level” which became “mental age” -developed norms to which you met or fell below these, your stage of development was judged -wanted it to be time-specific snapshot of current capabilities, not to predict future performance -he thought delayed children could improve by doing mental orthopedics -William Sterm started practice of dividing mental age by their chronological age to obtain precise measure of their retardation/advance – IQ born out of this -Goddard hereditarian + eugenicist too, was advocate for negative eugenics, said should institutionalize + segregate sexes -wrote book called “the kallikak family” in 1912, showed how mans marriage with 2 women had different outcomes -people knew of mendel, and this led goddard to believe there might be gene for feeblemindedness -found testing on immigrants found lots feebleminded + suggested unrestricted immigration = bad Lewis Terman + Americanization of Intelligence Testing -1916 Lewis Terman published binet version standardized on American Schoolchildren -introduced IQ practice -he thought IQ wa
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3125

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.