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Chapter 6

PSYC 3125 Chapter 6: CHAPTER 6
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3125
Professor
Kate Harper
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 6 – PSYCHOLOGISTS AS TESTERS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY, ORDERING SOCIETY -first tests, James Cattell 1890, coined term mental test -adding numbers to psychological qualities quantifies them + makes them scientific objects -fits in with wanting to make psychology practical, social utility + having scientific status -testing was pscyhology’s main endeavors until after WW2 -may seem sexist/misguided now, but people at the time thought they were legitimately helping + wanted to preserve social order Roots of Mental Testing in America -cattell was wundts student -did reaction time, found differences, so became interested in individual differences -wundt wanted to find similarities between people -so cattell worked w/ galton -Galton’s booked hereditary genius, wrote on ‘eminence’ running in families -from this believed mental abilities could also be passed on -galton ignored environmental factors that contributed to eminence -advocate for positive eugenics -galton would test people + identify those likely to be eminent while they were young and could procreate Mental Tests Go To The Fair -World’s Columbian thposition 1893 in Chicago -commemorate 400 anniversary of Columbus voyage -first time psychology was showcased -wanted to show new modern, urban, industrial world -psychology set itself apart from the everyday psychology (phrenology, mesmerism etc) -contributed to education, first psych clinician was to solve educational problems Lightner Witmer + the Preshistory of Clinical Psychology -witmer established first psych clinic at u of Pennsylvania and coined the term clinical psychology -by 1896 established this clinic -didn’t develop theory or methods, just made method called clinical method -1907 published journal the psychological clinic, next year made private school -clinical psychology not profession until after WW2 -he innovated: in-depth assessment, viewed most problems as capable of remediation, was an environmentalist -different from today: didn’t use labels, wanted to understand levels of functioning + design educational interventions -came up with witmer foamboard -social factors like influx of immigrants affected education, lots of children with different backgrounds, levels of ability Sorting the Sexes Complementary hypothesis: women + men differed in the very nature of their mental traits + capacities, with women + men displaying complementary but not directly comparable psychology + intellectual strengths -scientists + lay people both believed this -Helen Woolley got PhD at Uni of Chicago 1900, undertook first large-scale experimental study of sex differences in mental traits, published 1903 called mental traits of sex -found little differences, and on things she did, she cautioned bio reasons because men + women socialized differently -Leta Hollingworth influenced by Woolley, published studies to debunk cultural stereotypes about women -debunked belief that mental + motor performance impaired while menstruating -got phd in 1916, worked as clinical psychologists until 1920 -contributed to programs for gifted children, one of first organizers of American association of clinical psychology (1917), called for professional degree in clinical psych (precursor to PsyD) Variability hypothesis: male species always demonstrates more variability than the female across both physical + psychological traits and therefore drives evolutionary progress -in period after WW1, women psychologists had more applied positions, but not in war efforts Demise of Mental Tests + Rise of IQ -1900s, many challenges to nature + use of anthropometric testing -rise of individual testing, so large scale tests not useful -statistical developments showed that mental tests did not correlate meaningfully with academic achievement/intelligence -still interested in sorting mental abilities -Binet did testing on his children, found no distinguishing between adult + children neurologically -more complex tasks differentiated children + adults (attention + use of language) -came up with the following: 1. Intelligence could take many forms 2. Individuals were unique in their kind of intelligence 3. It was impossible to sum up a persons intelligence in a single number or score a. But wanted to arrive at uniqueness of person in shorter amount of time Individual psychology: research program in which Binet + Henri sought to develop a set of tests of psychological processes that could provide a complete picture of a person’s abilities -worked through 10 faculties, didn’t work -Binet given task by government to identify children in need of special education -came up with “mental level” which became “mental age” -developed norms to which you met or fell below these, your stage of development was judged -wanted it to be time-specific snapshot of current capabilities, not to predict future performance -he thought delayed children could improve by doing mental orthopedics -William Sterm started practice of dividing mental age by their chronological age to obtain precise measure of their retardation/advance – IQ born out of this -Goddard hereditarian + eugenicist too, was advocate for negative eugenics, said should institutionalize + segregate sexes -wrote book called “the kallikak family” in 1912, showed how mans marriage with 2 women had different outcomes -people knew of mendel, and this led goddard to believe there might be gene for feeblemindedness -found testing on immigrants found lots feebleminded + suggested unrestricted immigration = bad Lewis Terman + Americanization of Intelligence Testing -1916 Lewis Terman published binet version standardized on American Schoolchildren -introduced IQ practice -he thought IQ wa
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