Chapter 1: Origins of a Science Mind.
The naturalistic terms about the thought of man in naturalistic terms occurred in context of
faith both Protestant and Catholic.
Desecrates and Locke were profoundly affected by this context of religious and political strif
and found their ways to restore certainty of knowledge and order in civil society ( this also
helped in emergence of Psychology.
-concept of uncertainty
-Modern nation-state was developing and there was war among nations.
-Civil war was going on due to religious beliefs and practices
- Also in Europe , Martin Luther (16 Century) spread unevenly across the continent.
- A lot of arguments between Roman Catholic Church and new protestant faiths, the families
were divided. A lot of persecution , It was literally a time of uncertainty
- King of France, Henri IV ‘s assassination was a significant event .
- He was murdered since he was religiously diverse and guaranteed civil rights of religious
minorities mainly Protestant.
-Therefore, Catholics got him killed as they feared weakness in Catholicism.
- Thirty Years’ War began in 1618, between most states of Europe and many people were
- There was also challenges to orthodox understanding of the natural world by Nicholas
Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler shaked foundations of knowledge led
by Aristotle and his 13 Century Christian interpreter, St.Thomas Aquinas .
Sir Francis Bacon’s (beginning of the 17 Century )
- provided a science based observation of the world and was difficult for orthodox thinkers to
-Desecrates and Locke – are the two distinguished thinkers which are linked because they
both wanted to find a certainty that could underpin civil life.
Rene Descartes (17 Century)
- very well educated ; “Father of Modern Philosophy”
-was 22 when Thirty war began - brought up with Aristotelian beliefs
- Not a psychologist,
-His thinking was to see how the creation worked including the human brain and body.
-He decided to only accept things that he were clear and distinct to him.
His famous saying was Cogito ergo sum (Iam thinking therefore I exist.)
- He was very cultural
He believed that memory, perception, imagination , dreaming and feelings are all
part of the body.
This is the basis of what was referred to as mind-body dualism.
mind- body dualism = concept that mind and body are spate entities such with
its own properties.
2 models he used to explain his theory.
o He made this more understanding by using explanation of articulation of heart a
is pump for blood by William Harvey
o Artists who redefined automata. Automate = self moving mechanical objects
such as robots.
o Descrate used used the principle of mechanical movement as a metaphor for
understanding the functions of the body including the memory and other
properties of the nervous system.
o He said that the brain was filled with animals spirits.
o The center of the brain according to him was Pineal , therefore both body and
soul eah had a special place.
What is important about Desecrate for the later development ?
- Understood humans interms of natural law, and his legacy was their first to
understand human fully as part of nature. th
John Lock (End of 17 Century)
- he laid foundations for both empirical philosophy , humand sciences including
- His "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" is considered a masterpiece of
philosophy, and it laid the foundations of modern Empiricism, which rejects the concept
of innate (natural )knowledge and accepts the idea of learning through experience.
-The time from the publication of Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding
from 1690 to the early of the 19 Century is often called long 18 century. Some
Psychologists called it Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason.
- He believed that all knowledge comes through experience, from external and internal
sources of sensation and reflection, and that the human mind on birth is a blank slate, or
white paper (tabula rasa) on which all experience in life, moral precepts, and whatever
perceived through the senses are written.
Model he used to explain his theory
o Sir Isaac Newton’s model of mechanical basis of the physical world. (idea that
complex ideas form from simple ideas)
o Associationism = simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. This philosophy
of knowledge suggested that the complex contents of consciousness were built
from elementary sensations through several laws of association (e.g., contiguity,
contrast, and cause and effect).
o Empiricism= The philosophy that all knowledge is gained through experience
(i.e., through the senses).
o Concerning his own acceptance of God, Locke who considered himself a dualist,
said that he accepted God as the ultimate source of thought, which was at the
same time the proof for His existence PHISIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: THE SEARCH FOR MATERIAL EXPLANATIONS OF
o By 19 Century, experimentation was the method of discerning the truth and the
lab was used for discoveries.
o Harvey – described circulation of blood through heart thus potentially
understandable in naturalistic terms.
o William Cullen – both facilitated the public’s understanding that mind and brain
were intimately connected(body-mind dualism)
o Whyt proposed third action of stimuli on the organism.