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Chapter 1

Chapter 1_History of Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 3125
Alexandra Rutherford

Chapter 1: Origins of a Science Mind. The naturalistic terms about the thought of man in naturalistic terms occurred in context of faith both Protestant and Catholic. Desecrates and Locke were profoundly affected by this context of religious and political strif and found their ways to restore certainty of knowledge and order in civil society ( this also helped in emergence of Psychology. SEVENTEENTH CENTURY -concept of uncertainty -Modern nation-state was developing and there was war among nations. -Civil war was going on due to religious beliefs and practices th - Also in Europe , Martin Luther (16 Century) spread unevenly across the continent. - A lot of arguments between Roman Catholic Church and new protestant faiths, the families were divided. A lot of persecution , It was literally a time of uncertainty - King of France, Henri IV ‘s assassination was a significant event . - He was murdered since he was religiously diverse and guaranteed civil rights of religious minorities mainly Protestant. -Therefore, Catholics got him killed as they feared weakness in Catholicism. - Thirty Years’ War began in 1618, between most states of Europe and many people were killed. - There was also challenges to orthodox understanding of the natural world by Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler shaked foundations of knowledge led by Aristotle and his 13 Century Christian interpreter, St.Thomas Aquinas . Sir Francis Bacon’s (beginning of the 17 Century ) - provided a science based observation of the world and was difficult for orthodox thinkers to accept. -Desecrates and Locke – are the two distinguished thinkers which are linked because they both wanted to find a certainty that could underpin civil life. th Rene Descartes (17 Century) - very well educated ; “Father of Modern Philosophy” -was 22 when Thirty war began - brought up with Aristotelian beliefs - Not a psychologist, -His thinking was to see how the creation worked including the human brain and body. -He decided to only accept things that he were clear and distinct to him. His famous saying was Cogito ergo sum (Iam thinking therefore I exist.) - He was very cultural He believed that memory, perception, imagination , dreaming and feelings are all part of the body.  This is the basis of what was referred to as mind-body dualism. mind- body dualism = concept that mind and body are spate entities such with its own properties. 2 models he used to explain his theory. o He made this more understanding by using explanation of articulation of heart a is pump for blood by William Harvey o Artists who redefined automata. Automate = self moving mechanical objects such as robots. o Descrate used used the principle of mechanical movement as a metaphor for understanding the functions of the body including the memory and other properties of the nervous system. o He said that the brain was filled with animals spirits. o The center of the brain according to him was Pineal , therefore both body and soul eah had a special place. What is important about Desecrate for the later development ? - Understood humans interms of natural law, and his legacy was their first to understand human fully as part of nature. th John Lock (End of 17 Century) - he laid foundations for both empirical philosophy , humand sciences including psychology. - His "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" is considered a masterpiece of philosophy, and it laid the foundations of modern Empiricism, which rejects the concept of innate (natural )knowledge and accepts the idea of learning through experience. -The time from the publication of Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding from 1690 to the early of the 19 Century is often called long 18 century. Some Psychologists called it Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason. - He believed that all knowledge comes through experience, from external and internal sources of sensation and reflection, and that the human mind on birth is a blank slate, or white paper (tabula rasa) on which all experience in life, moral precepts, and whatever perceived through the senses are written. Model he used to explain his theory o Sir Isaac Newton’s model of mechanical basis of the physical world. (idea that complex ideas form from simple ideas) o Associationism = simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. This philosophy of knowledge suggested that the complex contents of consciousness were built from elementary sensations through several laws of association (e.g., contiguity, contrast, and cause and effect). o Empiricism= The philosophy that all knowledge is gained through experience (i.e., through the senses). o Concerning his own acceptance of God, Locke who considered himself a dualist, said that he accepted God as the ultimate source of thought, which was at the same time the proof for His existence PHISIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: THE SEARCH FOR MATERIAL EXPLANATIONS OF HUMAN NATURE NINETEENTH CENTURY o By 19 Century, experimentation was the method of discerning the truth and the lab was used for discoveries. o Harvey – described circulation of blood through heart thus potentially understandable in naturalistic terms. o William Cullen – both facilitated the public’s understanding that mind and brain were intimately connected(body-mind dualism) o Whyt proposed third action of stimuli on the organism. - Before
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