CHAPTER 3 SUBJECT MATTER, METHODS, AND THE MAKING OF NEW SCIENCE
-Germany is often identified as the birth place of new sicence .
o William James published Principles of Psychology.
o Immanual Kant/
- a great philosopher
-proposed that there are 2 separate domains of reality
(i) Noumenal world - The first world is called the noumenal world. It is the world of
things outside us, the world of things as they really are, the world of trees, dogs, cars,
houses and fluff that are really real. However, Kant says, our minds are created in such
a way that we cannot comprehend this world as it really is
(ii) Phenomenal world- Instead what we perceive is like an altered version of this world
which Kant called the phenomenal world. The phenomenal world is the world that we
perceive or to put it another way, the view we have of the world that is inside our heads.
atomism- An approach in science that involved breaking down subject matter
to its smallest elements for study.
o Ernest Weber – he was the first one to include the role of mathematics in
-He came up with the theory called just-noticable difference.
The just noticeable difference (JND), also known as the difference
threshold, is the minimum level of stimulation that a person can detect 50-
percent of the time. For example, if you were asked to hold two objects of different weights, the just noticeable difference would be the minimum
weight difference between the two that you could sense half of the time.
o Gustav Fechner
- he built on Webers’ work
-he became an early pionner in experimental psychology
- is also called the founder of psychophysics.
-Psychophysics = The branch of psychology that deals with the
relationships between physical stimuli and sensory response.
TWO CHRACTERISTICS OF GERMAN UNIVERSITIES
Lehrfeihet = the freedom to each
Lernfeiheit = the freedom to learn
Wissenschaft -A German concept of science in which science was not
determined by its subject matter; it was a way of looking at things. Thus,
any topic could be treated scientifically or approached in a scientific
o Wilhelm Wundt
- German physiologist and psychologist who is generally acknowledged as the
founder of experimental psychology.
experimental psychology, a method of studying psychological phenomena and
-These areas include the study of sensation
and perception, learning and memory, motivation, and biological psychology.
-opened the first experimental psychology laboratory at theUniversity of
Leipzig in Germany where Experimental Introspection was developed.