CHAPTER 5 – Anxiety Disorders
- 3 distinctive components of emotion: physiological, cognitive, and behavioural.
- Physiological component: involves changes in the nervous system resulting in respiratory,
cardiovascular, and muscular changes in the body (heart rate, breathing rate, muscle tone).
- Cognitive component: includes alterations in consciousness (e.g: in attention levels) and specific
thoughts a person may have while experiencing a particular emotion.
- Behavioural responses: consequences of certain emotions. E.g wanting to leave after
experiencing a panic attack.
- The three components of emotional states are highly interrelated, and each affects the other
- Anxiety: an affective state where a person feels threatened by the possible occurrence of a
future negative event. It is a future oriented phenomenon.
- Fear: is a more “primitive” emotion in the sense that it occurs in response to something that is a
real or perceived current threat. Fear is a present oriented phenomenon.
- Fight or flight response: behavioural response that is often triggered by fear and prompts a
person (or organism) to either flee from a dangerous situation or stand and fight.
o Physiological symptoms involved: increased heart rate, muscle tension, and breathing
rate. This reaction is the body’s method of preparing to respond to danger.
- Panic: an extreme fear reaction that is triggered even though there is nothing to be afraid of
(false alarm). It shares the same physiological and be