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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - An integrative approach to psychopathology

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York University
PSYC 3140
Stephen Fleming

Chapter 2 Multidimensional Integrative Approach  Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors. • Biological  genetics • Psychological  behavioural and cognitive processes – learned helplessness – Social learning – Prepared learning • Emotional • Social • Developmental In Jody’s Case: Behavioural Influences  watching the movie and fainting – classical conditioning Biological Influences  vasovagal syncope – low blood pressure in head  inherited tendency to overcompensate Emotional Influences  Rapid increase in heartbeat caused by emotions – triggered baroreflex. Social Influences  Rejection by authority figures can make disorders worse.  Support only when symptoms are experienced – increases frequency and intensity of reaction Genes  Long DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity, that appear as various locations on chromosomes, within the cell nucleus. - 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs - In each pair, one chromosome comes from your father the other from your mother rd - 23 pair  sex chromosome - XX = female, XY = male Dominant Gene – one of a pair of genes that determines a particular trait Recessive Gene – must be paired with another recessive gene Diathesis-Stress Model  individuals inherit, from multiple genes, tendencies to express certain traits or behaviours, which may then be activated under conditions of stress. Vulnerability = Diathesis (fainting) Vulnerability  Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder. Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model  people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder. Neuroscience  Study of the nervous system and its role in behaviour, thoughts, and emotions. Human nervous system includes: 1. Central Nervous System  brain, spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System  somatic and autonomic nervous system CNS Neurons  Individual nerve cells that are responsible for transmitting information. Synaptic Cleft  Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next. Neurotransmitters  Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders. • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)  Neurotransmitter that is active in the central and peripheral nervous systems controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because of its role in the body's alarm reaction, it may also contribute in general and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders. Involved in your emergency reactions or alarm responses • Serotonin  A neurotransmitter involved in processing information and coordination of movement as well as inhibition and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviours, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia. • Dopamine  Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure- seeking behaviours (thus balancing serotonin). A relative excess of dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia (though contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple) and its deficit is involved in Parkinson's disease. Switch that turns on various brain circuits. • GABA  Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviours and emotions, especially generalized anxiety. Binds to neuron receptor sites, inhibiting postsynaptic activity and reducing overall arousal. Brain Circuits  Neurotransmitte
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