Multidimensional Integrative Approach Approach to the study of psychopathology
that holds that psychological disorders are
always the products of multiple interacting
• Biological genetics
• Psychological behavioural and cognitive processes – learned helplessness
– Social learning
– Prepared learning
In Jody’s Case:
Behavioural Influences watching the movie and fainting – classical conditioning
Biological Influences vasovagal syncope – low blood pressure in head
inherited tendency to overcompensate
Emotional Influences Rapid increase in heartbeat caused by emotions – triggered
Social Influences Rejection by authority figures can make disorders worse.
Support only when symptoms are experienced – increases
frequency and intensity of reaction
Genes Long DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, the basic physical units of
heredity, that appear as various locations on chromosomes, within the cell
- 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs
- In each pair, one chromosome comes from your father the other from your
- 23 pair sex chromosome
- XX = female, XY = male
Dominant Gene – one of a pair of genes that determines a particular trait
Recessive Gene – must be paired with another recessive gene
Diathesis-Stress Model individuals inherit, from multiple genes, tendencies to
express certain traits or behaviours, which may then be
activated under conditions of stress.
Vulnerability = Diathesis (fainting)
Vulnerability Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.
Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model people with a genetic predisposition for a
disorder may also have a genetic tendency to
create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
Neuroscience Study of the nervous system and its role in behaviour, thoughts, and
Human nervous system includes:
1. Central Nervous System brain, spinal cord
2. Peripheral Nervous System somatic and autonomic nervous system
Neurons Individual nerve cells that are responsible for transmitting information.
Synaptic Cleft Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move
impulses from one neuron to the next.
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to
transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative
excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological
• Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Neurotransmitter that is active in the
central and peripheral nervous systems
controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and
respiration, among other functions.
Because of its role in the body's alarm
reaction, it may also contribute in general
and indirectly to panic attacks and other
Involved in your emergency reactions or alarm responses
• Serotonin A neurotransmitter involved in processing information and
coordination of movement as well as inhibition and
restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and
aggressive behaviours, all of which may be involved in different
psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is
implicated in schizophrenia.
• Dopamine Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate
other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-
seeking behaviours (thus balancing serotonin). A relative
excess of dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia (though
contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple)
and its deficit is involved in Parkinson's disease. Switch that
turns on various brain circuits.
• GABA Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus
inhibits a range of behaviours and emotions, especially generalized anxiety. Binds to neuron receptor sites, inhibiting postsynaptic
activity and reducing overall arousal.
Brain Circuits Neurotransmitte