Development Psychology the study of how disorders arise and how they change
Echolalia repeating the speech of others.
Is an immediate step in language development.
Not a symptom of autism, just a sign of relatively delayed language skills.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Developmental disorder featuring maladaptive levels of inattention, excessive activity,
- One of the most common reasons children are referred for mental health
- Pattern of inattention – not pay attention in school or work related tasks
- Hyperactivity – fidgeting, trouble for sitting for a length of time
- Impulsivity – acting apparently without thinking – blurting out answers before
questions have been completed
- Can disrupt academic efforts as well as social relationships
- Difficulty sustaining their attention on a task or activity
- Either inattention or both hyperactivity and impulsivity must be present for
someone to be diagnosed with ADHD.
- Occurs in 6% of school children
Reading, mathematics, or written expression performance substantially below levels
expected relative to the person's age, IQ, and education.
Reading Disorder a significant discrepancy between a person’s reading
achievement and what would be expected for someone the same age. Dyslexia.
Mathematics Disorder achievement below expected performance in mathematics
Disorder of Written Expression achievement below expected performance in
Stuttering Disturbance in the fluency and time patterning of speech (e.g., sound and
syllable repetitions or prolongations).
Expressive Language Disorder Person's problems in spoken communication, as
measured by significantly low scores on standardized tests of expressive language
relative to nonverbal intelligence test scores. Symptoms may include a markedly limited
vocabulary or errors in verb tense.
Selective Mutism Developmental disorder characterized by the individual's
consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite speaking in other
situations. Tic Disorders Disruption in early development involving involuntary motor
movements or vocalizations.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Wide-ranging, significant, and long-lasting dysfunctions that appear before the age of
- Problems with language, socialization and cognition
o Autistic Disorder
o Asperger’s Disorder
o Rett’s Disorder
o Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
o Pervasive Developmental Disorder – not otherwise specified
Asperger’s Disorder characterized by impairments in social relationships and
restricted or unusual behaviours, but without language delays seen in autism.
Rett’s Disorder Progressive neurological developmental disorder featuring constant
hand-wringing, mental retardation, and impaired motor skills.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder involves severe regression in language,
adaptive behaviour, and motor skills after a two-year to four-year period of normal
Pervasive Developmental Disorder – not otherwise specified Severe and
pervasive impairments in social interactions that do not meet all the diagnostic criteria for
Childhood disorder, characterized by significant impairment in social interactions and
communication and by restricted patterns of behaviour, interest and activities.
Impairment in Social Interactions
- Social rela