Chapter 1 Summary:
Moral treatment: -Philippe Pinel is considered a primary figure in the movement for
humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums.
-Pinel and Tuke started something special: the approach they took was called Moral
Treatment: - and under this patients had close contact with the attendants, who talked and read
to them and encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity; residents led as normal lives as
possible and in general took responsibility for themselves within the constraints of their
-drugs used at mental hospitals to treat patients were alcohol, cannabis, opium, and chloral
-Dorothea Dix - wanted to see improvement in mental healthcare and campaigned for the
establishment of state hospitals to care for mentally ill
Asylums in Canada
-J.f. Leham wrote the first book which discussed mentally ill people in Canada.
-the first asylums in Canada were built during the institution building period prior to WW1.
-The homewood retreat was created which was a profit oriented , independent, private asylum
in Guelph Ontario. Guided by dr.Lett who believed in the humane care of patients.
the history and development of institutions for the mentally disordered in Canada is
characterized in terms of two distinctive trends: 1) with the advent of asylums, provisions for the
mentally ill were seperate from provisions for the physically ill, indigents, and criminals, and 2)
the process was segregated from the wider community - the institution and the community were
two seperate and distinct solitudes.
-Thomas Sydenham was successful in advocating an empirical approach to classification and
diagnosis, one that subsequently influenced those interested in mental disorders.
-Wilhelm Griesinger insisted that any diagnosis of mental disorder specify a biological cause.
Emil Kraeplin in 1883 published a psychiatry txt with classifications of biological mental
he saw a tendency of symptoms grouped together as a Syndrome
-two major disorders he classified are 1)Dementia praecox, early schizophrenia and 2) manic-
depressive psychosis (bi polar disorder)
-schizophrenia caused by chemical imbalance and bi polar by irregularity of metabolism
The Mental Hospital in Canada: the 20th century vs today 1.2 -prior they were overcrowded, individual treatment unavailable. Drugs became the major for of
treatment especially after the invention of antipsychotic Phenothiazines 1950s.
-Saskatchewan was the first province to use more humane treatment and it implemented
canada's first provincially funded psychiatric research program in the 1950s.
-The process of deinstiutionalization also began which took the care of patients out of the
hospitals and into the communities.
-budget cuts in 80s and 90s caused this process to continue to grow.
-A process of transinstitutionalization had also take place. the tendency to reduce the number
of people in psychiatric hospitals by transferring them to other institutions. Most typically, this
results in increasing the number of people with mental health problems in general hospitals.
-At present the role of the remaining Provincial psychiatric hospitals is tertiary, that is they
provide specialized treatment and rehabilitation services for individuals whose needs for care
are too complex to be managed in the community.
-the trend toward community care has fuelled a debate on the value of Community treatment
orders, a legal tool issued by