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Chapter 2

Psyc 3140 ch.2 -summary.docx

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York University
PSYC 3140
Joel Goldberg

Chapter 2 : Current Paradigms and Integrative Approaches a paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think about a particular subject. -Kuhns view of paradigm, the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works. -paradigms thus specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation. 4 major paradigms: 1. biological, 2.cognitive-behavioural, 3.psychoanalytic, and 4.humanistic Biological Paradigm -continuation of somatogenic hypothesis, known as the medical model or disease model -medical illness shares one characteristic: in all some bioilogical process is disrupted or not functioning normally. -popular form late 1800s to mid 20th century. Behaviour genetics:is the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to differences in genetic make up. -the genotype is total genetic make up of an individual. this is unobservable -the phenotype is the totality of the observable, behavioural characteristics, such as level of anxiety. -a predisposition is known as diathesis, may be inherited, but not the disorder itself. the disorder is based on experience and environment study of behaviour genetic 4 basic methods to uncover predisposition; comparison of members of a family, comparison of pairs of twins, the investigaation of adoptees, and linkage analysis. Family method: analyzing family genes and the occurance of the disorder. 1st look at the index cases or pronands- look at family who members who might exhibit the diagnosis in question. Twin method, both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared. MZ identical twins are genetically the same. -when twins have the same diagnosis they are concordant. adoptees method: study children that were adopted and reared apart from their parents Molecular Genetics: -this are tries to specify the particular gene or genes involved and the precise functions of these genes -allele sveral dna coding that occupy same position or location on a chromosome. -genetic polymorphism- refers to variability among members of the species. Linkage Analysis: -is a method in molecular genetics used to study people. usually study families in whicha disorder is heavily concentrated. -genetic makers- study inheritance patterns of genetics that are fully understood Temperament: -they believe temperament is bioilogically predetermined. -def. constitutionally based differences in reactivity and self-regulation. types 1)the resilient type, 2)the overcontrolling type and 3) the undercontrolling type. Neuroscience and Biochemistry: -is the study of the brain and the nervous system. -some theories on psychpathology believe its caused by too much or too little of a particular transmitter. -the delusions and hallucinations of schizophrenia may result from an overabundance of dopamine receptors. Bio approaches to treatment: -ritalin, prozac ect -deep brain stimulation: planting battery operated electrodes in the brain that deliver low level electrical impulses BOX 2.1 -evidence that there is extensive evidence implicating frontostriatal circuitry in ADHD. -adhd patients display delays in cortical maturation, as reflected by attaining peak levels of cortical thickness at an older age. -the delay was in the lateral pre frontal cortex. memory and attention -the dopaminergic hypothesis is that adhd is due to a dopamine deficit believed to be genetic in origin. -Rosemary Tannock Sick childrens hospital are critical of the lack of theoretical models of the causes of ADHD in the neuroscience field. 1)A specific abnormality in reward-related circuitry that leads to shortened delay gradients. 2) deficits in temporal processing that result in high intrasubject intertrial subjectivity. 3) deficits in working memory -An important recent development is the creation of the ADHD-200. 200 neuroimaging investigators sharing an interest in advancing our understanding of the neural basis of ADHD. Cognitive Behavioural Paradigms -they view abnormailites in behaviour as learned responses similar in nature to how human behaviour is learned. -John B watson rise of behaviourism -Behaviourism can be defined as an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than on conciousness. -CC-pavlov- -watson studied little albert and the fear of rats. -this showed the association between classical conditioning and the development of certain emtional disorders, such as phobias. -OP- BF skinner -behavior that operates on the environment -Looked at responses and there consequences or contingencies. -discriminitve stimulus, external events that tell the organism that a certain behavioiur will have a consequence that follows it. -Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Bandura and Modelling: -vicarious learning. -children of parents with phobias or substance abuse problems may acquire similar behavioural patterns via modelling. 2.1 Canadian Contributions: -his initial work focused on social learning theory and on the idea that much of what we learn in through the process of imitation. -Four key processes in observational Learning: 1)Attention (noticing the models behaviour) 2)retention (remembering the models behaviour) 3)reproduction(personally exhibiting the behaviour) 4)motivation (repeating imitated behaviour if they recieved positive consequences). -his more recent work entails social cognitive theory. it focuses on concepts of human agency and self-efficacy, and individuals perceived sense of being capable. -the focus on personal, group, and collective agency promotes the view that we are key players who can act proactively to determine the factors and influences in our lives. Behavioural Therapy: -used cc and op to alter clinical problems. 1.modelling, 2.counterconditioning and exposure, 3. operant conditioning 4. cognitive behaviour therapy. Counterconditioning and Exposure: -countercon - is realearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular stimulus. -The key to this is Systemic Desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe. Aversive conditioning : a liked stimulus is paired with an Unpleseant one. Used in treatment of alcoholism ect. OP conditioning: -postitive reinfo
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