Chapter 2 : Current Paradigms and Integrative Approaches
a paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to
conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think
about a particular subject.
-Kuhns view of paradigm, the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist
-paradigms thus specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the
4 major paradigms: 1. biological, 2.cognitive-behavioural, 3.psychoanalytic, and 4.humanistic
-continuation of somatogenic hypothesis, known as the medical model or disease model
-medical illness shares one characteristic: in all some bioilogical process is disrupted or not
-popular form late 1800s to mid 20th century.
Behaviour genetics:is the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in
part to differences in genetic make up.
-the genotype is total genetic make up of an individual. this is unobservable
-the phenotype is the totality of the observable, behavioural characteristics, such as level of
-a predisposition is known as diathesis, may be inherited, but not the disorder itself. the disorder
is based on experience and environment
study of behaviour genetic 4 basic methods to uncover predisposition; comparison of members
of a family, comparison of pairs of twins, the investigaation of adoptees, and linkage analysis.
Family method: analyzing family genes and the occurance of the disorder.
1st look at the index cases or pronands- look at family who members who might exhibit the
diagnosis in question.
Twin method, both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared. MZ identical
twins are genetically the same.
-when twins have the same diagnosis they are concordant.
adoptees method: study children that were adopted and reared apart from their parents
Molecular Genetics: -this are tries to specify the particular gene or genes involved and the precise functions of these
-allele sveral dna coding that occupy same position or location on a chromosome.
-genetic polymorphism- refers to variability among members of the species.
-is a method in molecular genetics used to study people. usually study families in whicha
disorder is heavily concentrated.
-genetic makers- study inheritance patterns of genetics that are fully understood
-they believe temperament is bioilogically predetermined.
-def. constitutionally based differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
types 1)the resilient type, 2)the overcontrolling type and 3) the undercontrolling type.
Neuroscience and Biochemistry:
-is the study of the brain and the nervous system.
-some theories on psychpathology believe its caused by too much or too little of a particular
-the delusions and hallucinations of schizophrenia may result from an overabundance of
Bio approaches to treatment:
-ritalin, prozac ect
-deep brain stimulation: planting battery operated electrodes in the brain that deliver low level
-evidence that there is extensive evidence implicating frontostriatal circuitry in ADHD.
-adhd patients display delays in cortical maturation, as reflected by attaining peak levels of
cortical thickness at an older age.
-the delay was in the lateral pre frontal cortex. memory and attention
-the dopaminergic hypothesis is that adhd is due to a dopamine deficit believed to be genetic in
origin. -Rosemary Tannock Sick childrens hospital are critical of the lack of theoretical models of the
causes of ADHD in the neuroscience field.
1)A specific abnormality in reward-related circuitry that leads to shortened delay gradients.
2) deficits in temporal processing that result in high intrasubject intertrial subjectivity.
3) deficits in working memory
-An important recent development is the creation of the ADHD-200. 200 neuroimaging
investigators sharing an interest in advancing our understanding of the neural basis of ADHD.
Cognitive Behavioural Paradigms
-they view abnormailites in behaviour as learned responses similar in nature to how human
behaviour is learned.
-John B watson rise of behaviourism
-Behaviourism can be defined as an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than
-watson studied little albert and the fear of rats.
-this showed the association between classical conditioning and the development of certain
emtional disorders, such as phobias.
-OP- BF skinner
-behavior that operates on the environment
-Looked at responses and there consequences or contingencies.
-discriminitve stimulus, external events that tell the organism that a certain behavioiur will have
a consequence that follows it.
-Positive and Negative Reinforcement:
Bandura and Modelling:
-children of parents with phobias or substance abuse problems may acquire similar behavioural
patterns via modelling. 2.1 Canadian Contributions:
-his initial work focused on social learning theory and on the idea that much of what we learn in
through the process of imitation.
-Four key processes in observational Learning: 1)Attention (noticing the models behaviour)
2)retention (remembering the models behaviour) 3)reproduction(personally exhibiting the
behaviour) 4)motivation (repeating imitated behaviour if they recieved positive consequences).
-his more recent work entails social cognitive theory. it focuses on concepts of human agency
and self-efficacy, and individuals perceived sense of being capable.
-the focus on personal, group, and collective agency promotes the view that we are key players
who can act proactively to determine the factors and influences in our lives.
-used cc and op to alter clinical problems.
1.modelling, 2.counterconditioning and exposure, 3. operant conditioning 4. cognitive behaviour
Counterconditioning and Exposure:
-countercon - is realearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular
-The key to this is Systemic Desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe.
Aversive conditioning : a liked stimulus is paired with an Unpleseant one. Used in treatment of