Chapter 3 summary: Clinical Assessment
most popular theoretical orientation cognitive 31%, followed by electic integrative 22% and then
-therapeutic assessment: finn, the therapy starts right away even during the assessment.
Reliability and Validity:
Inter rater reliability: refers to the degree to which two independent observers or judges agree.
test-retest reliability: iq tests for example. to make sure the 1st test is reliable and the results are
alternate form reliability- the scores on two tests will stay the same even when ? are changed
-Internal consistency reliability: assess whether the items on a test are related to one another.
whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose.
Content valididty. refers to whether a measure adequatly samples the domain of interest.
Criterion validity (lecture concurrent validity): is evaluated by determining whether a measure
is associated in an expected way with some other measure. Sometimes these relationships may
be concurrent (both variables are measured at the same point in time, and the resulting validity
is sometimes referred to as concurrent validity). it can be assessed by evaluating the measures
ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future; called predictive validity.
Construct Validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some
characteristic or construct that is not simply defined. construct validity would increase when test
results would line up with observational result ect.
Case validity: focus on validity of interpretations and decisions made with respect to a
unstructure interviews have low reliability and validity.
-Structured Interview: is one in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the
interviewer. (SCID structured Clinical Interview Diagnosis)
evidence based assessment: Hunsley and mash.
Psychological Tests: -can lead to standardization. upon which the results of test can be compared to statistical
norms. Test norms are standards that are used to interpret an individuals score comparing it to
3 types Personality inventories, projective personality tests, and intelligence tests.
-personality inventories: MMPI, 1940s by Hathaway and Mckinley, meant to serve as an
inexpensive means of detecting psychopathology, multiphasic bc it is meant to detect a wide
variety of psychological problems. this assessment has validity scales such as the L (lie scale)
-mmpi 2 - improve validity and acceptability, took into acct different races.
-MMPI-2 LEE HALEY FAKE BAD SCALE: identiy people in personal litigation lawsuits who
claim to have been injured but who are actually faking bad.
Projective personality tests: roshark test. inkblots or pictures are given to be interpretted by
-his unconscious will come to the forefront
-projective hypothesis it will allow the clincian to find out what is truly bothering the client.
TAT -thematic apperception test: black and white pics and then told to tell a story that relates
-Exner system uses rorschach and it is pretty good for detecting schizophrenia.
-Roberts apperception test for children, similar to tat, but he scores the childrens responses to
see if responses are abnormal.
Intelligence tests: Alfred binet.
-intrest in recent years has also focused extensively on emotional intelligence, reflected in such
abilities as delaying gratification and being sensitive to the needs of others.
Behavioural and Cognitive Assessment and Case Formulation:
-A case formulation is a provisional map of a persons presenting problems that describes the
territory of the problems and explains the processes tha