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Physchophysiological Disorders Chapter

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York University
PSYC 3140
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 9: Psychophysiological Disorders and Health Psychology psychophysiological disorders: genuine physical symptoms caused and or worsened by emotional factors psychosomatic disorders - these disorders did not appear in DSM-IV like previous editions because it requires a judgement on psych factors affecting med condition - not a form of mental disorder - Kupfer, Kuhl and Wilson DSM-V -- psych disorders are med disorders psychological factors affecting medical condition: other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention behavioural medicine: health psychology: stress: created by Hans Selye, some environmental condition that triggers psychopathology - affects the nervous system general adaptation syndrome (GAS): biological response to sustained and unrelenting physical stress, Selye stressor: stress as a stimulus - psychogenic or neurogenic - hard to define objectively - when a person determines that the demands of the situation exceeds resources - stress allostatic load: intense and prolonged demands on neurochemical systems which can lead to a variety of pathological outcomes coping: responding to stressful situations, ho people try to deal with a problem or handle the emotions it produces - problem-focused coping: direct action to solve the problem or seek information that will be relevant to the solution - emotion-focused coping: efforts to reduce the negative emotional reactions to stress goodness of fit hypothesis: the adaptivity of a particular coping response depends on the match between the coping response and hat is called for ideally by the problem situation The Social Readjustment Rating Scale - Holmes and Rahe - Life Changing Unit score - weighted sum of events - Miller and Rahe changed scores and found LCU increased 45% - correlation between psych stress and physical illness - Rahe and Rahsom - illness can cause a high life-change score, chronic absenteeism caused by the illness brings dismissal from a job Assessment of Daily Experience - Stone and Neale - individuals to record and rate their daily experiences in prospective or longitudinal investigations - a day was unit of analysis - no major retrospective-recall bias - events reported in a ay would be less severe than those reported over longer periods of time - relationship of un/desirable and respiratory illness daily hassles: - Hassles Scale by Delongis - meant for middle aged community - Brief College Hassles Scale for students: - 1. academic - 2. interpersonal - 3. financial - higher scores, higher psych distress - higher hassles in lower emotional intelligence and stress management job stress: experienced because or unique personal characteristics or because they have high-stress occupations - linked w depression job spillover: stressed workers bring their work stress home with them and it causes family stress job burnout: 1. sense of emotional exhaustion 2. depersonalization 3. a sense of lack of personal accomplishment - physical problems such as cardiovascular disease - depression - reflection of work addiction and workaholism - vital exhaustion: extreme form of burnout, a physical depletion that is linked to cardiovascular disease The COPE - active coping - suppression of competing activities - planning - restraint - use of social support - positive reframing -looking for good - religion - denial - behavioural disengagement - giving up attempting to cope - use of humour - self-distraction - best way to examine coping is longitudinal - avoidant coping methods were related to higher levels of distress - women who accepted their diagnoses and retained a sense of humour had lower levels - avoidant coping predicted greater progression of the disease - rumination contributes to a heighten stress response perseverative cognition: the tendency to ruminate perseverative cognition hypothesis: notion that rumination prolongs the stress response and thus contributes to health problems - people are likely to ruminate about the distress that arises from negative interpersonal interactions - when asked to ruminate, autonomic dysregulation occurred among participants who have personalities characterized by hostility, self-directed anger, depression and anxiety structural social support: basic network of social relationships functional social support: quality of relationships emotional support: provides the recipient with a sense of being cared for by warm and sensitive others instrumental support: tangible forms of assistance - few friends have higher mortality rate - higher levels of functional support lower rates of atherosclerosis - low social support, increase in negative emotions - social support has causal affect on physiological process - oxytocin released during social interaction, decrease sympathetic nervous system and lesson the physiological effects of a stressor - with very severe stressors, some people are overwhelmed a support does no good Biological approaches attribute particular psychophysi
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