Textbook Notes (362,880)
Canada (158,081)
York University (12,350)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 3140 (266)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Personality Disorders

6 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 3140
Stephen Fleming

Chapter 12 Personality disorders are ”enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts” AND “are inflexible and maladaptive and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress.” Enduring maladaptive patterns for relating to the environment and oneself, exhibited in a wide range of contexts that cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress.  Inflexible  Maladaptive  Cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress  Chronic – originate in childhood and continue throughout adulthood  People who have personality disorders in addition to other psychological problems, tend to do poorly in treatment  On Axis II  Made up of Cluster A, B and C  Difficulty can be seen as one of degree rather than kind o The problems of people with personality disorders may just be extreme versions of the problems many of us experience on a temporary basis Categorical and Dimensional Models Advantages of a system with both categories and dimensions: 1) it would retain more information about each individual 2) it would be more flexible because it would permit both categorical and dimensional differentiations among individuals 3) it would avoid the often arbitrary decision involved in assigning a person to a diagnostic category Five factor model of personality – “BIG FIVE” People can be rated on a series of personality dimensions and the combination of five components describes why people are so different 1) Extraversion – talkative, assertive, active 2) Agreeableness – kind, trusting, warm 3) Conscientiousness – organized, thorough, reliable 4) Neuroticism – nervous, moody, temperamental 5) Openness to experience – imaginative, curious, creative On each dimension, people are rated high, low or somewhere in between Personality Disorder Clusters Cluster A – odd, eccentric  Paranoid (Penny)  Schizoid (Sees)  Schizotypal (Sally) Cluster B – dramatic, emotional, erratic, impulsivity  Antisocial  Borderline  Histrionic  Narcissistic Cluster C – anxious, fearful  Avoidant  Dependent  Obsessive compulsive Cluster A Paranoid Personality Disorder  Can interfere with making friends, working with others, and getting through daily interactions in a functional way.  Excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others, without justification  Defining characteristic – pervasive unjustified distrust  Bears relationship to paranoid type of schizophrenia and delusional disorder o Although suspicious about others, individuals with this disorder do not reach delusional proportions or hallucinations. Schizoid Personality Disorder  Show a pattern of detachment from social relationships  Very limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations  Aloof, cold, indifferent to other people  Seem to neither desire nor enjoy closeness with others, including romantic or sexual relationships  Do not seem affected by praise or criticism  Consider themselves, observers rather than participants in the world around them  Do not seem to have very unusual thought processes like other disorders in Cluster A Schizotypal Personality Disorder  Typically socially isolated  Unlike schizoid, as they behave in ways that would seem unusual to many of us  Tend to be suspicious and have odd beliefs  Have ideas of reference – they think insignificant events relate directly to them o Everyone on a bus is talking to them, yet may be able to acknowledge this is unlikely  Have odd beliefs or engage in “magical thinking”  Report unusual perceptual experiences, like illusions o Feeling the presence of someone in the room  Unlike schizophrenia when someone IS in the room  Phenotype – one way a person’s genetics are expressed  Genotype – the gene or genes that make up a particular disorder If a person is thought to have “schizophrenia genes” (the genotype), but lacks biological influences or environmental stresses, some will have the less severe schizotypal personality disorder (phenotype)  Some estimate that between 30% and 50% of the people with this disorder, also meet the criteria for major depressive disorder Cluster B Antisocial Personality Disorder  Most dramatic of individuals with a personality disorder  Chara
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3140

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.