Textbook Notes (368,666)
Canada (162,055)
York University (12,867)
Psychology (3,584)
PSYC 3140 (267)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Cognitive Disorders

5 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3140
Professor
Stephen Fleming
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 15 Brain disorders that affect cognitive processes: o Learning o Memory o Consciousness  Most cognitive disorders develop much later in life Three classes of cognitive disorders: 1) Delirium – an often temporary condition displayed as confusion and disorientation 2) Dementia – a progressive condition marked by gradual deterioration of a broad range of cognitive abilities 3) Amnestic Disorders – dysfunctions of memory due to a medical condition or a drug or toxin Once the term organic mental disorders (brain damage or dysfunction was believed to be involved), the term cognitive disorders has been used – an impairment of cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, perception and thinking.  Incidence of these disorders rises with increasing age, with rates being highest for those aged 65 and older. Delirium  One of the earliest recognized mental disorders – reported more than 2500 years ago  Rapid-onset  Reduced clarity of consciousness and cognition, with confusion, disorientation, and deficits in memory and language.  Appear confused, disorientated and out of touch with their surroundings  Cannot focus and sustain attention on the simplest of tasks  Develops over hours or a few days and the symptoms can vary over the course of a day  Affects older adults, people undergoing medical procedures, cancer and AIDS patients  Common risk factors for older patients include: o Dementia o Medication o Medical illness  Delirium subsides relatively quickly, with full recovery expected within a several weeks. Dementia  Gradual-onset deterioration of brain functioning, affecting: o Memory loss o Inability to recognize objects or faces o Problems in planning and abstract reasoning o Judgement o Language These are associated with frustration and discouragement.  Caused by several medical conditions and the abuse of drugs or alcohol o Stroke – which destroys the blood vessels o Infectious diseases of syphilis and HIV o Severe head injury o Toxic and poisonous substances  Diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s disease Symptoms  Memory impairment – inability to register ongoing events o A person can remember how to talk and remember events from years ago, but not the past hour  Visuospatial skills impairment – can’t find way home  Agnosia – the inability to recognize and name objects  Facial agnosia – the inability to recognize familiar face  Delusions – irrational beliefs  Depression  Agitation  Aggression  Apathy  Can occur at any age but the Alzheimer’s type rarely occurs in people under 45 years  Six classes of dementia based on etiology have been identified: 1) Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type 2) Vascular dementia 3) Dementia due to other general medical conditions 4) Substance-induced persisting dementia 5) Dementia due to multiple etiologies 6) Dementia not otherwise specified Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type Alzheimer’s Disease - The "strange disease of the cerebral cortex" that causes an "atypical form of senile dementia," discovered in 1906 by the German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer. Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type:  Gradual onset of cognitive deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease  Principally identified by a person's inability to recall newly or previously learned material  The most common form of dementia  Predominant is the impairment of: o Memory o Orientation o Judgement o Reasoning  Forget about important events and lose objects  Sundowner Syndrome – difficulties such as agitation, confusion, depression, anxiety which become pronounced late in the day  Aphasia – difficulty with language o Anomia – problems with naming objects  Apraxia – impaired motor functioning  Agnosia – failure to recognize objects  Difficulty with activities – planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting information  Mini Mental
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3140

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit