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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- Final Exam Textbook Notes

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PSYC 3140
Jennifer Lewin

Chapter 12: Term Definition Substance Use Disorder Patterns of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeatedly use of a substance Tolerance The adjustment that the brain and the body make to regular use of certain drugs so that ever larger doses are needed to achieve the earlier effects Withdrawal Unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when people who use drugs regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug Delirium Tremens (DTs) A dramatic withdrawal reaction experienced Tolerance and withdrawal by some people who are alcoholic- dependent. It consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations Korsakoff’s Syndrome An alcoholic related disorder marked by Personal and social impact extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms Fetal Alcohol Syndrome A cluster of problems in a child, including low birth weight, irregularities (head and face), and intellectual deficits, caused by excessive alcohol intake by pregnant mother Sedative Hypnotic Drug A drug used in low doses to reduce anxiety Also called anxiolytic and in higher doses to help people sleep Barbiturates Drugs that reduce anxiety and help produce Addictive sedative-hypnotic sleep Benzodiazepines The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax Opioid Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine Opium Highly addictive substance made from the sap of the opium poppy Morphine A highly addictive substance derived from opium that is particularly effective in relieving pain Heroin One of the most addictive substances derived from opium Endorphins Neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension. “Body’s own opioids” Cocaine Addictive stimulant obtained from the coca Natural stimulant plant. Free-Base A technique for ingesting cocaine in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame and inhaled from pipe Crack Powerful, ready to smoke, free base cocaine Amphetamine Stimulant drug that is manufactured in laboratory Methamphetamine Powerful amphetamine drug, recently raised in popularity Caffeine The world’s most used stimulant Stimulant Hallucinogen Substance that causes powerful changes primarily in sensory perception and producing illusions and hallucinations LSD Hallucinogenic drug derived from ergot alkaloids Cannabis Drugs Produced from varieties of the hemp plant “Cannabis Sativa”. Cause a mix of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects THC Main active ingredient of cannabis substances Cross-Tolerance Tolerance for a substance one has not taken before as a result of using another substance similar to it Synergistic Effect In pharmacology, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time Reward Center A dopamine-rich pathway in the brain that produces feelings of pleasure when activated Reward-Deficiency Syndrome A condition, suspected to be present in some individuals, in which the brain’s reward center is not readily activated by the usual events in their lives Detoxification Systematic and medically supervised withdrawal from a drug Aversion Therapy Treatment where clients are repeatedly presented with unpleasant stimuli while performing undesirable behaviors such as taking a drug Relapse Prevention Training CBT approach to treating alcoholic use disorder in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking, and plan ahead for risky situations and reactions Antagonist Drugs Drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug Methadone Maintenance Program An approach to treating heroin-centered substance use disorder in which clients are given legally and medically supervised doses of a substitute drug, methadone Residential Treatment Center A place where people formerly addicted to drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug free environment. “Therapeutic community” Note: Depressants: Slow the activity of nervous system 1. Alcohol • Binge drinking episodes- 5 or more drinks on a single occasion • All alcoholic beverages have ethyl alcohol • Depresses or slows functioning by binding into various neurons o Those that normally receive the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA carries inhibitory message (a message to stop firing) when it is received at certain neurons. Alcohol helps GABA to shut down neurons that help relax the drinker. • Women have less of the stomach enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase which breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it enters blood • People with alcohol use disorder rely on it to enable them to do things that would otherwise make them anxious • Withdrawal its DTs • Personal and social impacts: o Irreversible condition called cirrhosis, in which the liver becomes scarred and dysfunctional o Korsakoff’s syndrome (related to confabulating) o Confabulating- reciting made-up events to fill in the gaps o Fetal alcohol syndrome 2. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs- Barbiturates & Benzodiazepines • Reduce anxiety and in higher doses help people sleep • Barbiturates: o In low doses they reduce the person’s excitement like alcohol does o Attaching to receptors on the neurons that receive the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and by helping GABA operate at those neurons o Repeated use can result in sedative-hypnotic use disorder- users may spend much of their day intoxicated, irritable, and unable to do their work • Benzodiazepines: o Anti-anxiety drugs o Most popular is Xanax, and valium o Attaching to receptors on the neurons that receive the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and by helping GABA operate at those neurons o Relieve anxiety without making them feel drowsy as other kinds of sedative- hypnotics Opioids: Taken from opioid poppy • Derived from it is heroin, morphine, and codeine o All addictive, all reduce physical and emotional pain (some more than others) • Morphine o Initially thought was safe o Soldier’s disease • Heroin o Derived from morphine o Initially was known as safe and used as cough medicine • Laboratory-blended drugs from opium: synthetic, methadone • All collectively known as narcotics • Morphine and codeine are medical narcotics usually prescribed to relieve pain • Opioids create “rush”, “orgasmic” feelings by depressing the central nervous system, particularly the centers that help control emotion o Drug attaches itself to brain receptors sites that ordinarily receive endorphins (neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension) o When neurons at receptor sites receive opioids, they produce pleasurable and calming feelings just as they would do if they were receiving endorphins • Opioid use disorder develops after a few weeks of use • Withdrawal symptoms usually peak by 3 day and slowly disappear by 8 day • Immediate danger of heroin use is an overdose, which closes down the respiratory center in the brain, almost paralyzing breathing and in many cases causes death (most likely during sleep) Stimulants: Increase the activity of the central nervous system (increased blood pressure and heart rate) • Most troublesome stimulants are cocaine and amphetamines (illegal)
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