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Chapter 14

Chapter 14- Detailed exam prep

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PSYC 3140
Jennifer Lewin

Chapter 14: Term Definition Schizophrenia A psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities Psychosis A state in which a person loses contact with reality in key ways Positive Symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia that seem to be excesses of or bizarre additions to normal thoughts, emotions, or behaviors Delusions A strange false belief firmly held despite evident to the contrary Formal Thought Disorder A disturbance in the production and organization of thought Loose Association A common thinking disturbance in schizophrenia, characterized by rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another. (Also known as derailment) Hallucination The experiencing of sights, sounds, or other perceptions in the absence of external stimuli InappropriateAffect Display of emotions that are unsuited to the situation; a symptom of schizophrenia Negative Symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia that seem to be deficits in normal thought, emotions, or behaviors Alogia A decrease in speech or speech content; a symptom of schizophrenia. (Also known as poverty of speech) Flat Affect A marked lack of expressed emotions; a symptom of schizophrenia Avolition A symptom of schizophrenia marked by apathy and an inability to start or complete a course of action Catatonia A pattern of extreme psychomotor symptoms found in some forms of schizophrenia, which may include catatonic stupor, rigidity, or posturing Dopamine Hypothesis The theory that schizophrenia results from excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine Antipsychotic Drugs Drugs that help correct grossly confused or distorted thinking Phenothiazine A group of antihistamine drugs that became the 1 group of effective antipsychotic medications Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs A relatively new group of antipsychotic drugs whose biological action is different from that of the traditional antipsychotic drugs Schizophrenogenic Mothers A type of mother—supposedly cold, domineering, and uninterested in the needs of others— who was once thought to cause schizophrenia in her child Note: • Taking LSD or abusing amphetamines or cocaine may produce psychosis • Most commonly, psychosis appears in the form of schizophrenia • Sufferers have an increased risk of suicide and of physical- often fatal- illness • Downward drift theory: o Could be that schizophrenia causes its victims to fall from a higher to a lower socioeconomic level or remain poor because they are unable to function effectively Symptoms of Schizophrenia: • Positive Symptoms- o Pathological excesses, bizarre additions to a person’s behavior o Delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, heightened perceptions and hallucinations  Delusions: o Ideas that they believe wholeheartedly but have no basis in fact 1. Delusions of persecution- believe they are being plotted or discriminated against, spied on, slandered, threatened, attacked, or deliberately victimized 2. Delusions of reference- they attach special and personal meaning to the actions of others or to various objects or events 3. Delusions of grandeur- believe themselves to be great inventors, religious saviors, or other specially empowered person 4. Delusions of control- believe their feelings, thoughts, and actions are being controlled by other people  Disorganized thinking and speech: o May not be able to think logically and may speak in peculiar ways. These formal thought disorders can cause the sufferer great confusion and make communication extremely difficult 1. Loose association- shift from one topic to another believing that their incoherent statements make sense 2. Perseveration- repeat their words again and again 3. Clang- rhyme their sentences (thinking or expressing themselves) o Some people with schizophrenia use neologisms, made up words that typically have meaning only to the person using them o Appears long before a full pattern of schizophrenia  Heightened perception and hallucinations o People with schizophrenia showed deficiencies in smooth pursuit eye movement, weaknesses that may be related again to attention problems o Another kind of perceptual problem is hallucinations o People who have auditory hallucinations (very common in this disorder), hear sounds and voices that come from outside their heads o Voices give them commands, or warnings of dangers o Research suggested that blood flow in Broca’s area, the region of the brain that helps people produce speech may be responsible o PET scans revealed increased activity near the surfaces of the brains  Inappropriate affect o Person with this disorder may smile when making a serious statement or they may become upset in situations that should make them happy o May be responding instead to another of the many stimuli flooding their senses, perhaps a joke coming from an auditory hallucination • Negative Symptoms- o Pathological deficits, characteristics that are lacking in the individual o Poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal o Such deficits greatly affect one’s life and activities  Poverty of speech o Reduction in speech or speech content o People with this negative kind of formal thought disorder think and say very little o Others might say quiet a lot but still give very little meaning  Restricted affect o Many people with schizophrenia have a blunted affect- which means they show less anger, sadness, joy and other feelings than most people o The people who show NO emotions at all have a condition called flat affect o People with these problems may have anhedonia, a general lack of pleasure and enjoyment  Loss of volition o Feeling drained of energy and of interest in normal goals and unable to start to follow through on a course of action o Common with people who had schizophrenia for many years and appear to be worn down by it o People with this disorder display ambivalence, or conflicting feelings about most things  Social withdrawal o Withdraw from their social environment and attend only to their own ideas and fantasies o Breakdown of social skills, including the ability to recognize other people’s needs and emotions accurately • Psychomotor Symptoms­ o Awkward movements or repeated grimaces and off gestures o Extreme forms referred to as catatonia  Catatonic stu
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