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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Anxiety Disorders

13 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3140
Stephen Fleming

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Chapter 5Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Anxiety is complex and mysteriousAnxiety is a negative mood state which is characterized by bodily symptoms of physical tension and apprehension about the future Anxiety is very hard to studyCan be a subjective sense of unease a set of behaviours looking worried and anxious fidgeting or a physiological response originating in the brain and reflected in elevated heart rate and muscle tension Most anxiety research is done with animalsAnxiety is good for us in moderate amountsSomatic symptoms of tensionFutureorientatedcannot predict or control upcoming eventsFearFear is an immediate alarm reaction to dangerFear protects us by activating a massive response from the autonomic nervous system increased heart rate and blood pressure which along with our subjective sense of terror motivates us to escape flee or to attack fight Flight or fight response PanicPanicSudden overwhelming fright or terror Named after Greek God PanPanic AttackAbrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by physical symptoms such as dizziness or heart palpitationsNorwegian artist Edvard Munchpicture depicts artists panic attack in processThree types of panic attacks oSituationally cued boundhaving panic attacks in certain situations but not anywhere elseoUnexpected uncuedoSituationally predisposedin betweenmay have had an attack in a mall but not sure when it could happen again Not every timeUnexpected and situationally predisposed attacks are important in panic disordersSituationally bound attacks are more common in specific phobias or social phobiaEvidence shows that fear and anxiety reactions differ psychologically and physiologically Anxietya futureorientated mood state characterized by apprehension because we cannot predict or control upcoming eventsFearan immediate emotional reaction to current danger characterized by strong escapist action tendencies and often a surge in the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous systemCausesBiological ContributionsWe inherit a tendency to be tense or uptightNo single genes seems to cause anxietyoWeak contributions from many genes in several different areas on chromosomes collectively make us vulnerable to anxiety when the right psychological and social factors are in placeThe tendency to panic seems to run in families and may have a genetic componentDepleted levels of GABA part of the GABAbenzodiazepine system are associated with increased anxiety although the relationship is not quite directNoradrenergic system and serotonergic neurotransmitter system are also involvedIncreased focus on the role of the corticotrophin releasing factor CRF system Area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the limbic systemoCircuit leads from the septal and hippocampal area in the limbic system to the frontal cortex
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