PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Epigenetics, Sickle-Cell Disease, Heredity

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Ch .1 September 11th
9. Research Methods
- Theory: a tentative explanation of why and under what circumstances certain
events occur
- Variable: any measurable characteristics of people, objects, or events that may
change
- Independent variable: studied for its potential or expect influence
- Dependent variable: assessed because its value is expected to “depend” on the
independent variable
A) Experiments
- A controlled study in which researchers manipulate an independent variable to
study its effect on a dependent variable
- Trial: a well designed experiment
- Manipulate: the researchers produce or introduce the levels of the independent
variable they are studying
- The experimental method: a hypothesis, randomly assigning people to groups,
equate the groups (distribute the people’s characteristics), the experimental
group (receiving the experimental treatment), and the control group (receiving
usual care)
- Placebo: given the same instructions as the experimental group, and both
would have equal expectations about the effectiveness of the experiment at hand
- Placebo effect: any influence the placebo has on the dependent variable
- Double blind procedure: being aware of which individuals are getting which
treatment is being blind as to the treatment, both the individuals receiving and
distributing are unaware
- Cause effect conclusion: the levels of the independent and dependent variables
corresponded or varied together, the causes preceded the effect, and all other
plausible causes have been ruled out
- Randomized controlled trials: the researchers use random assignment to
equate the groups, manipulate the independent variable, and control variables
that are not being studied
- Non experimental methods: the researchers either do not manipulate an
independent variable and/or do not equate the groups
- They are used to point out relationships between variables, they do not
provided direct and unambiguous tests of cause effect relationships
B) Correlational Studies
- Correlation: the co or joint relation that exists between variables changes in one
variable correspond with changes in another variable
- Correlation coefficient: range from +1.00 to .00 to -1.00
- The positive or negative sign indicates the direction of the relationship
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Document Summary

Theory: a tentative explanation of why and under what circumstances certain events occur. Variable: any measurable characteristics of people, objects, or events that may change. Independent variable: studied for its potential or expect influence. Dependent variable: assessed because its value is expected to depend on the independent variable: experiments. A controlled study in which researchers manipulate an independent variable to study its effect on a dependent variable. Manipulate: the researchers produce or introduce the levels of the independent variable they are studying. The experimental method: a hypothesis, randomly assigning people to groups, equate the groups (distribute the people"s characteristics), the experimental group (receiving the experimental treatment), and the control group (receiving usual care) Placebo: given the same instructions as the experimental group, and both would have equal expectations about the effectiveness of the experiment at hand. Placebo effect: any influence the placebo has on the dependent variable.

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