PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Classical Conditioning, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Diaphragmatic Breathing

86 views12 pages
Chapter 3 Health Behaviors
-Describe + define health promotion
-Explain why health behavior are important
-Know the theories and models used for understanding health behavior change
-Describe how cognitive behavioral approaches are used to change health
behaviors
-Relate how social engineering can change health behaviors
-Identify venues for health-habit modification
-Good health is achievable through health habits practiced conscientiously
-Health promotion means being aware of health habits that pose risk for future
disease and already existing risk like vulnerability
Having eye for reducing risk to modification of habits before they develop
into illness
What is Health Promotion?
-General philosophy w/idea that good health or wellness is personal and collective
achievement
1986, WHO first international conference in Ottawa defined health
promotion as enabling ppl to increase control and improve their health
-At individual level, HP involves developing program of good health habit early in
life + carrying them thru adulthood/old age
-Medical practitioner level HP involves teaching ppl how best to achieve healthy
lifestyle and helping ppl at risk for particular health problems learn behavior to
offset/monitor risk
-Psychologist lvl HP involves development of intervention to help ppl practice
healthy behavior + change poor ones
-Community + policy makers HP is general emphasis on good health, availability
of info to help ppl develop + maintain healthy lifestyle + availability of resource,
condition, facilities to help ppl change poor health habits
-Mass media contribute HP by educating ppl about health risk posed by certain
behavior
-Legislation contribute to HP by mandating certain activities to reduce risk
Why are health behaviors important?
Role of behavioral factors in disease and disorder
-Half of death in Canada are caused by modifiable behaviors
Smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity among the leading causes
Cancer deaths can be reduced by 50% thru avoiding smoking and eating
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
more vege/fruits, protect from sun, tell doctor about health changes, early
screening
-Successful behavior modifications leads to beneficial effects
Reduce death due to lifestyle related disease
Delay time of death, increase longevity + general life expectancy
Product of good health expand number of yrs person enjoy life free from
complication of chronic disease
Lead to decrease in health spending due to disease
What are health behaviors?
-Undertake by ppl to enhance/maintain health
Poor health behavior lead to illness and bad habits
-Health habit = health related behavior that’s firmly established and performed
automatically
Developed around 11/12 yrs old
May be developed initially b/c reinforced by specific + outcome, like
parental approval, later becomes independent of reinforce and maintained
by environment
Highly resistant to change
-Belloc + Breslow in 1972 showed those who practice more good habits had fewer
illness, less disabled and felt better
Even 9-12 years later men who followed health practice had mortality rate
@ 28% compared to those who followed 0-3 of 7 practice
Women had 43%
-Primary prevention:
Instilling good health habits + changing poor ones
Combat risk factors before illness had chance to develop
2 general strategies
Most common is to employ behavior change method to alter
problematic health behavior
Second is keep ppl from developing health habit in first place
More preferable to keep ppl from develop problematic behavior
What factors influence the practice of health behavior?
-Individual health behavior are influenced by social, cultural, physical environment
-Socio economic: differ according demographic, younger more affluent, better
educated ppl under low lvl of stress w/high level of social support practice better
health habits than those w/high level stress and fewer resource or those in lower
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
class
-Age: health habit good in childhood and deteriorate in adolescence but improve
in retired adults
-Gender: at school aged children, girls eat more nutritious food but also engage in
unhealthy dieting + meal skipping
Girls less likely to engage in sport
-Values: dependent on culture
-Personal control: health locus of control help determine health behavior, those
who are predisposed to be under control practice good habits
-Social influence: either beneficial or adverse (peer pressure), media act as
indirect source
-Personal goals: if personal fitness is goal that doesn’t interfere w/achievement of
other goals, person more likely to exercise on regular basis
-Perceived symptoms:
-Access to health care service: using tuberculosis, Pap smear, immunizations are
direct ways whereas losing weight, stopping smoking are indirectly encouraged
-Place: access to practice behavior is important
-Cognitive factors: belief that certain health behavior are beneficial or sense that
one may be vulnerable to underlying illness if one doesn’t practice particular
health behavior
Barriers to modifying poor health behavior
-Determinants are important because bad habits are difficult to chance
Etiology is still hard to pinpoint
Why child go from being active to sedentary?
Process is gradual and decline is due to changes in environment
Ppl have little immediate incentives for practicing good health behavior
Smoking doesn’t have effect of health since cumulative damage
occurs later
Ppl not highly motivated to change them b/c they can be pleasurable,
automatic, addictive
Instability of Health Behavior
-Habits are unstable because:
Different health habits control by different factors
Difference factors may control same health behavior for different ppl
Factors controlling health behavior may change over history of behavior
Factors controlling health may change across lifetime
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Know the theories and models used for understanding health behavior change. Describe how cognitive behavioral approaches are used to change health behaviors. Relate how social engineering can change health behaviors. Good health is achievable through health habits practiced conscientiously. Health promotion means being aware of health habits that pose risk for future disease and already existing risk like vulnerability. Having eye for reducing risk to modification of habits before they develop into illness. General philosophy w/idea that good health or wellness is personal and collective achievement. 1986, who first international conference in ottawa defined health promotion as enabling ppl to increase control and improve their health. At individual level, hp involves developing program of good health habit early in life + carrying them thru adulthood/old age. Medical practitioner level hp involves teaching ppl how best to achieve healthy lifestyle and helping ppl at risk for particular health problems learn behavior to offset/monitor risk.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes