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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Health Psychology.docx

5 Pages

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

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Chapter 1 Health Psychology  Health psychology: o understanding psychological influences and how ppl stay healthy. o Why they become ill o How they react to getting ill  Health definition o “complete state of physical, mental and social well-being not merely the absence of infirmity o Some use ‘’wellness’’ instead  Health psychologists focus on: o Health promotion and maintenance o Prevention and treatment o Etiology, correlates of health, illness, dysfunction.  Etiology -is origins that cause illness: tend to look at social factors, and states of mind to determine illness’ cause. Also habits and learned activities. o Develop recommendations to improve health care and promotion  Early Philosophers: evil spirits cause of disease.  Greeks: bodily functions to attribute health. o Hippocrates/Galen: disease caused by bodily factors, which also impact on mind.  Middle ages: evils and punishment  Morgannis 1682- autopsy and rejection of humoral theory of illness  Psychoanalytic: o Freud: conversion hysteria  Unconscious conflicts produce psychological disturbances o Psychosomatic Medicine  Dunbar/Alexander: linked patterns of personality to specific conflicts and illness  Conflicts produce anxiety; takes physiological toll on body via autonomic nervous system.  Medicine: profiles of particular disorders caused by psychological disorders  Current view of Body-Mind Relationship o Good habits, under ones control, culture, social factors, socio-economic factors, stress all attribute to health.  BioPsychological Model: o Body n mind together determine health/illness; study both. o Health and illness are consequence of interplay between biological, psychological and social factors o Biomedical model:  Biomedical model is the basis that all illness can be explained by biochemical imbalances or neuropsychological abnormalities  Is a reductionist model  Reduces illness to low level processes(disordered cells/chemical)  Rather than to habits and social/psychological processes  Single cause model of illness  Assumes a mind-body dualism. o BioPsychological bases on many factors at all levels and uses system theory:  System theory: hierarchy of linked systems affecting each and every levels  Biomedical  BioPsycholgical  Reductionist  Macro/micro levels considered  Single cause factor  Multiple cause and factors  Mind-body dualism  Inseparable mind/body  Emphasizes illness over health  Both health/illness emphasized  Clinical implications of BioPsycho-model o Interdisciplinary approach o Recommendations for treatment must examine all three sets of factors o Explicit significance relationship b/w patient and practitioner  Changing Patteths of Illness o Until 20 century Acute illnesses such as TB, pneumonia, infections, were leading illnesses in Canada o NOW  Chronic Illnesses(slowly developing, stay for long time) such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, disabilities  Therefore Health Psychology has come about to investigate the cause/effect relationship and habits which cause or prevent these illnesses  Help them adjust psychologically/socially to the changing illnesses  Technology o Identifying genes to attribute a disorder or to inspect early in life o Identify carriers of life threatening diseases...  Epidemiology o Study of frequency, distribution, cause for infectious diseases  Based on investigations of Physical and Social environments  Search why some places have more prevalent than others o Morbidity: number of cases of diseases at any point in time o Mortality: number of deaths attributed to a particular cause  Both statistics are essential to creating safer environments  (Car accidents a good example)(along with the precautions instituted) o Concerned not only with biological outcomes, but also health related quality outcomes o Not only prevention, but also improving quality of life to symptomatic complaints from chronic illnesses  Changing Perspectives on Health/Health Care o WHO: health is a positive state rather than a mere absence of disease o Lalonde Report:  4 main cornerstones to health :  Human biology, environment, lifestyle, health-care organization o Health is the ‘’capacity of ppl to adapt, respond, and control one life’s challenges o Health psychs need to understand these determinants and to inform policy makers, safety boards ,schools boards, news, and the like o Health Psych represents an important perspective on these issues for several reasons:  Containing health-care costs and targets is important in modifying illness through PREVENTION :  Changing ppl’s risky behaviour/habits before they become ill  Design user-friendly healthcare systems to better ones care and quality of care  Its impact on ppl is enormous, employees, patients, practitioners, tax money etc...   Increased Medical Acceptance o Caregivers are recognizing that psychological/social factors are always important for health n illness o Techniques which take minutes to teach, will have life-lasting effects of benefit  Experiments o Randomized clinical trials also act as experiments in treatment and their effectiveness o How ppl adjust to cancer in groups or not by comparison o By manipulating variables they can judge cause-effects
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