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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Health Psychology.docx

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 2 Health Psychology Nervous system: o Complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that functions to regulate many important bodily functions o Response to stress/ recovery from stress o Motor vehicle fibres provide output from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and other organs, resulting in voluntary and involuntary movement o Made of central nervous system/ peripheral nervous system Central: consist of brain and spinal cord Peripheral: consist of all other nerves connecting to the brain/spinal cord somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system o somatic: voluntary; connects nerve to voluntary muscles and provides brain with feedback in form of sensory info abt the voluntary movements o autonomic: Involuntary; connects central nervous sys. With all internal organs ppl dont have control over o occurs in sympathetic and parasympathetic: o sympathetic: plays role in reaction to stress Prepares body to respond Anger/fear Mobilization/exertion of energy Catabolic system o Parasympathetic: Controls organs under normal circumstances Acts antagonistically to sympathetic Restores body to normal Conserves body Anabolic system Brain: o Hindbrain/ midbrain: o 3 mains in hindbrain : 1. Medulla Receives info about rate heart contraction Speeds or slows down as needed Blood pressure regulation Blood vessels Rates of breathing 2.Pons: Serve as link b.w. hind/midbrains Controls respiration 3.Cerebellum: Coordinates voluntary muscle movements Balance equilibrium Muscle tone/ posture o Midbrain: Major pathway for sensory and motor impulses B.w. forebrain and hindbrain Forebrain: o 2 main section: the diencephalon and telecephalon o Diencephalon: Consists of Thalamus and hypothalamus Thalamus: Recognizes sensory stimuli and relay of sensory impulses Hypothalamus: Regulates the centres in medulla Control cardiac functioning Blood pressure Respiration Water balance Appetite Sexual desire Anxiety: Secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach via hypothalamus signals o Two hemispheres: o Cerebral cortex L and R Largest portion of brain Intelligence Memory Personality o Left part of motor cortex is for voluntary muscles on right side of body o Right side is for motor cortex controlling voluntary on left side o Four lobes: 1.Frontal 2. Parietal Somatosensory cortex Touch, pain, temp, pressure 3. Temporal Cortical areas responsible for auditory and olfactory(smell) 4. Occipital Visual cortex o Basal ganglia : 4 round masses embedded deep in cerebrum Make muscle contractions smooth n orderly Limbic System: o Amygdale are involved in the detection of threat o Hippocampus and in emotionally charged memories o Cingulated gyrus, septum, areas in hypothalamus Emotional functioning o Anterior portion of thalamus: Important for social relevant behaviours Neurotransmitters: o Regulate nervous system functioning o Secretion of 2 neurotransmitters called catecholamines Epinephrine n nonepinephrine Promoting activity of sympathetic stimulation Release can increase rates, blood pressure etc...Respiration... Digestion/urine lowered More sweat o Arousal of sympathetic and release of catechlomines important to stress o Have implications on coronary artery disease and hypertension Disorders in Nervous systems o Epilepsy: Idiopathic; no specific cause Injury during birth, head, disease, meningitis, metabolic/nutritional disorders Seizures of ranging movements o Cerebral Palsy: Chronic, nonprogressive disorder Lack of muscle control o Parkinsons: Basal ganglia ruined, Less smooth motor activation Slow/rigid movements o Multiple Sclerosis: Blindness, deafness, mental deterioration
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