PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Sympathetic Nervous System, Somatic Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System

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24 Apr 2012
Chapter 2 Health Psychology
Nervous system:
o Complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that functions to regulate many
important bodily functions
o Response to stress/ recovery from stress
o Motor vehicle fibres provide output from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and other
organs, resulting in voluntary and involuntary movement
o Made of central nervous system/ peripheral nervous system
Central: consist of brain and spinal cord
consist of all other nerves connecting to the brain/spinal cord
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
o somatic:
voluntary; connects nerve to voluntary muscles and
provides brain with feedback in form of sensory info abt
the voluntary movements
o autonomic:
Involuntary; connects central nervous sys. With all
internal organs
ppl don’t have control over
o occurs in sympathetic and parasympathetic:
o sympathetic:
plays role in reaction to stress
Prepares body to respond
Mobilization/exertion of energy
Catabolic system
o Parasympathetic:
Controls organs under normal circumstances
Acts antagonistically to sympathetic
Restores body to normal
Conserves body
Anabolic system
o Hindbrain/ midbrain:
o 3 mains in hindbrain :
1. Medulla
Receives info about rate heart contraction
Speeds or slows down as needed
Blood pressure regulation
Blood vessels
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Rates of breathing
Serve as link b.w. hind/midbrains
Controls respiration
Coordinates voluntary muscle movements
Balance equilibrium
Muscle tone/ posture
o Midbrain:
Major pathway for sensory and motor impulses
B.w. forebrain and hindbrain
o 2 main section: the diencephalon and telecephalon
o Diencephalon:
Consists of Thalamus and hypothalamus
Recognizes sensory stimuli and
relay of sensory impulses
Regulates the centres in medulla
Control cardiac functioning
Blood pressure
Water balance
Sexual desire
Secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach via hypothalamus signals
o Two hemispheres:
o Cerebral cortex L and R
Largest portion of brain
o Left part of motor cortex is for voluntary muscles on right side of body
o Right side is for motor cortex controlling voluntary on left side
o Four lobes:
2. Parietal
Somatosensory cortex
Touch, pain, temp, pressure
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3. Temporal
Cortical areas responsible for auditory and olfactory(smell)
4. Occipital
Visual cortex
o Basal ganglia :
4 round masses embedded deep in cerebrum
Make muscle contractions smooth n orderly
Limbic System:
o Amygdale
are involved in the detection of threat
o Hippocampus
and in emotionally charged memories
o Cingulated gyrus, septum, areas in hypothalamus
Emotional functioning
o Anterior portion of thalamus:
Important for social relevant behaviours
o Regulate nervous system functioning
o Secretion of 2 neurotransmitters called catecholamines
Epinephrine n nonepinephrine
Promoting activity of sympathetic stimulation
Release can increase rates, blood pressure etc...Respiration...
Digestion/urine lowered
More sweat
o Arousal of sympathetic and release of catechlomines important to stress
o Have implications on coronary artery disease and hypertension
Disorders in Nervous systems
o Epilepsy:
Idiopathic; no specific cause
Injury during birth, head, disease, meningitis, metabolic/nutritional disorders
Seizures of ranging movements
o Cerebral Palsy:
Chronic, nonprogressive disorder
Lack of muscle control
o Parkinson’s:
Basal ganglia ruined,
Less smooth motor activation
Slow/rigid movements
o Multiple Sclerosis:
Blindness, deafness, mental deterioration
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