PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Sympathetic Nervous System, Somatic Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System

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24 Apr 2012
Department
Course
Chapter 2 Health Psychology
Nervous system:
o Complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that functions to regulate many
important bodily functions
o Response to stress/ recovery from stress
o Motor vehicle fibres provide output from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and other
organs, resulting in voluntary and involuntary movement
o Made of central nervous system/ peripheral nervous system
Central: consist of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral:
consist of all other nerves connecting to the brain/spinal cord
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
o somatic:
voluntary; connects nerve to voluntary muscles and
provides brain with feedback in form of sensory info abt
the voluntary movements
o autonomic:
Involuntary; connects central nervous sys. With all
internal organs
ppl don’t have control over
o occurs in sympathetic and parasympathetic:
o sympathetic:
plays role in reaction to stress
Prepares body to respond
Anger/fear
Mobilization/exertion of energy
Catabolic system
o Parasympathetic:
Controls organs under normal circumstances
Acts antagonistically to sympathetic
Restores body to normal
Conserves body
Anabolic system
Brain:
o Hindbrain/ midbrain:
o 3 mains in hindbrain :
1. Medulla
Receives info about rate heart contraction
Speeds or slows down as needed
Blood pressure regulation
Blood vessels
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Rates of breathing
2.Pons:
Serve as link b.w. hind/midbrains
Controls respiration
3.Cerebellum:
Coordinates voluntary muscle movements
Balance equilibrium
Muscle tone/ posture
o Midbrain:
Major pathway for sensory and motor impulses
B.w. forebrain and hindbrain
Forebrain:
o 2 main section: the diencephalon and telecephalon
o Diencephalon:
Consists of Thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus:
Recognizes sensory stimuli and
relay of sensory impulses
Hypothalamus:
Regulates the centres in medulla
Control cardiac functioning
Blood pressure
Respiration
Water balance
Appetite
Sexual desire
Anxiety:
Secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach via hypothalamus signals
o Two hemispheres:
o Cerebral cortex L and R
Largest portion of brain
Intelligence
Memory
Personality
o Left part of motor cortex is for voluntary muscles on right side of body
o Right side is for motor cortex controlling voluntary on left side
o Four lobes:
1.Frontal
2. Parietal
Somatosensory cortex
Touch, pain, temp, pressure
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3. Temporal
Cortical areas responsible for auditory and olfactory(smell)
4. Occipital
Visual cortex
o Basal ganglia :
4 round masses embedded deep in cerebrum
Make muscle contractions smooth n orderly
Limbic System:
o Amygdale
are involved in the detection of threat
o Hippocampus
and in emotionally charged memories
o Cingulated gyrus, septum, areas in hypothalamus
Emotional functioning
o Anterior portion of thalamus:
Important for social relevant behaviours
Neurotransmitters:
o Regulate nervous system functioning
o Secretion of 2 neurotransmitters called catecholamines
Epinephrine n nonepinephrine
Promoting activity of sympathetic stimulation
Release can increase rates, blood pressure etc...Respiration...
Digestion/urine lowered
More sweat
o Arousal of sympathetic and release of catechlomines important to stress
o Have implications on coronary artery disease and hypertension
Disorders in Nervous systems
o Epilepsy:
Idiopathic; no specific cause
Injury during birth, head, disease, meningitis, metabolic/nutritional disorders
Seizures of ranging movements
o Cerebral Palsy:
Chronic, nonprogressive disorder
Lack of muscle control
o Parkinson’s:
Basal ganglia ruined,
Less smooth motor activation
Slow/rigid movements
o Multiple Sclerosis:
Blindness, deafness, mental deterioration
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