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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Health Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 4 Health Psychology How does exercise enhance health? o Aerobic exercise is sustained activity that stimulates, strengthens the heart n lungs improving the bodys utilization of oxygen o High intensity, long duration, requisite high endurance o Benefits: Regular exercise can decrease risk of chronic heart disease n cancers, breast cancers especially! 49% of Canadians are at least moderately active during their leisure time Inactivity : more common among women than men More common among older than younger adults Common among non educated Common among aboriginals o Aerobic exercise: has been tied to increases in cardiovascular fitness and endurance and to reduced risk for heart attacks Translates directly to longevity Quality of the exercise is a factor though How much exercise? o 60 mins every day to stay healthy o 30 mins moderate intensity activity 4 days a week o Lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing physical activity may represent a food start for aging adults Exercise vs. Stress: o Releases adrenaline and other hormones o 1.Infrequent activation of adrenaline can have beneficial effects o 2.Chronically enhanced release may not Stress adrenaline metabolized differently than runnings adrenaline o 3.HPA(hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis is activated which may be heavily responsible for the adverse effects of stress on the body, while sympathetic nervous system arousal alone (common in activity)may have fewer adverse effects Effects on Psychological Health: o Improves mood and feeling of well-being immediately afterwards o Companionship and social support increase likelihood that ppl will keep on track o Improves your sense of self efficaciousness underlying mood and confidence o Sometimes used as treatment for depression o Increase in symptoms of depression is one of the risks of stopping exercise Exercise as stress management o Better able to cope with stress and avoid illnesses o Important to combat adverse health effects of stress o Increase in endogenous opioids (pain inhibitors) stimulated by exercise may also play a role in the modulation of immune activity during periods of psychological stress Determinants of exercise: o Adolescence : declined substantially, videos, smoking, drugs, laziness o Six month participation ranges from 11-87 %; half the ppl stick to what they say after 6 months Individual Characteristics: o Ppl with positive attitudes toward activity, self efficacy and social support are likely to exercise o Gender predicts who exercises: Boys more than girls early on o Social support predicts exercise: Reinforcements o Self Efficacy supports exercise o Might be more successful in adults to modify attitudes in older adults Setting: o Convenience and easy access, higher rates of adherence o Lack of resources a barrier to lower classes o Exercise intentions are influenced attitudes or habits gained First 3-6 months is the fallout Making it REGULAR exercise will determine if its a habit or not Takes willpower to overlook the initial short-term costs Characteristics of interventions o Strategies: Cognitive strategies: contingency contracting, self reinforcement, self monitoring, goal setting, All appear to promote adherence Relapse preventions centered around increasing awareness of the obstacles ppl face in getting regularity To cope, resist temptations Trans-Theoretical approach model suggest that different interventions should be targeted to ppl at different stages of exercise contemplations and actions Incorporating exercise into a more general program healthy lifestyle will be more successful as well (i.e. stop smoking by taking up activity as well!) Individualized exercise programs: o Long term best approach o Ensures ppl have realistic expectations for their exercise programs may improve long term adherence o Unrealistic ones can promote eating disorders Preventable Injuries: o Unintentional injuries represent one of the major causes of preventable death in Canadao Car accidents/motor vehicles lead o Bicycle helmet use o At work injuries: strategies to reduce them has become more prevalent o Home and workplace: Providing education and resources about how to keep the home safe is key to preventing accidents in the home o Motor: single most greatest cause of death Getting ppl to follow the instituted rules is difficult speed n belts Cancer related Health behaviours o Breast Cancer Screenings: Most common cancer in women worldwide Different screenings; different ages Clinical breast exam and mammogram most effective o Clinical Breast Exam: Physical examination of the breast by a health care prof. Detecting abnormalities and early signs of breast cancer Consistent with the health belief model, misperceptions of vulnerability and perceived barriers to CBE decreased CBE self efficacy and uptake of CBE increased after the socio-culturally tailored intervention in Western Culture o Mammograms: 1.p
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