PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Breast Self-Examination, Bicycle Helmet, Mammography

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24 Apr 2012

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Chapter 4 Health Psychology
How does exercise enhance health?
o Aerobic exercise is sustained activity that stimulates, strengthens the heart n lungs
improving the body’s utilization of oxygen
o High intensity, long duration, requisite high endurance
o Benefits:
Regular exercise can decrease risk of chronic heart disease n cancers, breast
cancers especially!
49% of Canadians are at least moderately active during their leisure time
Inactivity :
more common among women than men
More common among older than younger adults
Common among non educated
Common among aboriginals
o Aerobic exercise:
has been tied to increases in cardiovascular fitness and endurance and to
reduced risk for heart attacks
Translates directly to longevity
Quality of the exercise is a factor though
How much exercise?
o 60 mins every day to stay healthy
o 30 mins moderate intensity activity 4 days a week
o Lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing physical activity may represent a food start
for aging adults
Exercise vs. Stress:
o Releases adrenaline and other hormones
o 1.Infrequent activation of adrenaline can have beneficial effects
o 2.Chronically enhanced release may not
Stress adrenaline metabolized differently than running’s adrenaline
o 3.HPA(hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis is activated which may be heavily
responsible for the adverse effects of stress on the body, while sympathetic nervous
system arousal alone (common in activity)may have fewer adverse effects
Effects on Psychological Health:
o Improves mood and feeling of well-being immediately afterwards
o Companionship and social support increase likelihood that ppl will keep on track
o Improves your sense of self efficaciousness underlying mood and confidence
o Sometimes used as treatment for depression
o Increase in symptoms of depression is one of the risks of stopping exercise
Exercise as stress management
o Better able to cope with stress and avoid illnesses
o Important to combat adverse health effects of stress
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o Increase in endogenous opioids (pain inhibitors) stimulated by exercise may also play a
role in the modulation of immune activity during periods of psychological stress
Determinants of exercise:
o Adolescence : declined substantially, videos, smoking, drugs, laziness
o Six month participation ranges from 11-87 %; half the ppl stick to what they say after 6
Individual Characteristics:
o Ppl with positive attitudes toward activity, self efficacy and social support are likely to
o Gender predicts who exercises:
Boys more than girls early on
o Social support predicts exercise:
o Self Efficacy supports exercise
o Might be more successful in adults to modify attitudes in older adults
o Convenience and easy access, higher rates of adherence
o Lack of resources a barrier to lower classes
o Exercise intentions are influenced attitudes or habits gained
First 3-6 months is the fallout
Making it REGULAR exercise will determine if it’s a habit or not
Takes willpower to overlook the initial short-term costs
Characteristics of interventions
o Strategies:
Cognitive strategies: contingency contracting, self reinforcement, self
monitoring, goal setting,
All appear to promote adherence
Relapse preventions centered around increasing awareness of the obstacles ppl
face in getting regularity
To cope, resist temptations
Trans-Theoretical approach model suggest that different interventions should
be targeted to ppl at different stages of exercise contemplations and actions
Incorporating exercise into a more general program healthy lifestyle will be
more successful as well (i.e. stop smoking by taking up activity as well!)
Individualized exercise programs:
o Long term best approach
o Ensures ppl have realistic expectations for their exercise programs may improve long
term adherence
o Unrealistic ones can promote eating disorders
Preventable Injuries:
o Unintentional injuries represent one of the major causes of preventable death in Canada
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o Car accidents/motor vehicles lead
o Bicycle helmet use
o At work injuries: strategies to reduce them has become more prevalent
o Home and workplace:
Providing education and resources about how to keep the home safe is key to
preventing accidents in the home
o Motor: single most greatest cause of death
Getting ppl to follow the instituted rules is difficult speed n belts
Cancer related Health behaviours
o Breast Cancer Screenings:
Most common cancer in women worldwide
Different screenings; different ages
Clinical breast exam and mammogram most effective
o Clinical Breast Exam:
Physical examination of the breast by a health care prof. Detecting
abnormalities and early signs of breast cancer
Consistent with the health belief model, misperceptions of vulnerability and
perceived barriers to CBE decreased
CBE self efficacy and uptake of CBE increased after the socio-culturally tailored
intervention in Western Culture
o Mammograms:
1.prevalence remains high 22000 diagnosed pr yr
2.majority in aged over 40, cost effective way
3.early detection vital to survival rates
o Getting them to get mammograms:
Fear of radiation, embarrassment, pain anxiety, cancer fear, perception of need
all act as deterrents to the testing
Lack of awareness, incentive, availability also
Use among older women increased substantially when doctors gave brochures
with forms n calendars of ease.
Counselling and mailing were also effective
Educational programs need to be culturally sensitive, to consider minority
Asians and aboriginals less likely to get screened
Planned behaviour theory also predicts likelihood of obtaining it
Mammograms haven’t been well integrated into standard care for women
Prostate Cancer
o Most common cancer among men
o DRE (digital rectal exam) most common screening
o PSE(prostate specific test)
o Both are susceptible to false positives, detecting cancer that isn’t present
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