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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Health Psychology.docx

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3170
Professor
Gerry Goldberg

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Description
Health Psychology Chapter 5 Health Compromising Behaviours o Many and several including smoking are addictive; difficult habits to ever break Characteristics of health compromising behaviours: o 1.Window of vulnerability in adolescence Drinking in excess/smoking/drugs/sex/risk taking behaviours Obesity though; usually in early childhood o 2.Many behaviours tied to peer culture, as children learn from peers they like/admire Self presentation process: young adults efforts to appear with it/socially hip o 3.Many of these behaviours are pleasurable, enhance coping with stress, thrill seeking o 4. Occur gradually: exposure to and susceptible behaviour, experiments, engages, regulates Not acquired all at one o 5.Abuse Predicted by same factors: Conflict with family, Poor self control, Behaviours to cope and manage stressful life Adolescents who have deviant behaviours, low self esteem, family problems very likely to practice these behaviours Long hours of employment tied with school creates high risk for high use of substances Poor school performance: Family problems, deviance, low esteem explain this relationship o 6. Problem behaviours are related to larger social structure in which they occur: More common abuse in low class Common in less health conscientious households Lower class provides stress; hence abuse Substance Dependence: o Repeated self-administered substance; tolerance; withdrawal; compulsive behaviour o Physical dependence: when body has adjusted to substance and incorporates the use substance into normal functioning of body tissues Involves tolerance-process which the body adapts to substances; requires more n more Craving: strong desire to engage in a behaviour or consume a substance Paired with many environmental cues; triggers desire Addiction: physically or psychologically dependant on substance Withdrawal: unpleasant symptoms both physical/psychological ppl experience when stop use of substance which they were dependent on o Substance Costs: 40 bill in 2002 Smoking 43% of this o Harm reduction: Strategy for dealing with substance abuse Approach focuses on risk/consequences rather than use itself Better focus on reducing for reduction of harm as opposed to unrealistic elimination Harm reduction most often used in a community level program Ex: injections risk of hiv/aids Most problematic in large cities Some facility insite show that 70% less likely to share if visit How do they compromise health: o Disorders associated: Blood pressure, stroke, cirrhosis of liver, cancer Sleep disorder Immune alterations Elevated infection risks Cognitive impairments Driving offences declining though Disinhibits aggression; many suicides homicides under alcohols influence More impulsive sexuality; probably rape related Alcoholism/problem drinking: o Alcoholic: Physically addicted to alcohol Show withdrawal symptoms High tolerance for alc Little self control o Problem drinkers: Substantial social/psychological, medical problems resulting from alcohol o Both have seen some loss of memory o Difficulty in performing ones job o Legal encounters; convictions Origins of alcoholism: o `genetic factors appear implicated o Younger women and women employed outside home catching up to men who have higher rates/risks for alcoholism o Socio-demographic factors of low income affect it too Stress: o Use to buffer impact of stress o High rates in laid off workers o Many drinking to enhance positive emotions and reduce negatives o Lowers anxiety and improves self esteem temporarily o Psychological rewards in drinking Social origins: o Pleasant occasion drinking, socially o 2 windows of vulnerability: Age of 12-21 Middle age as coping method for stress Depression: o Social isolation o Lack of employment o Women who suffered violence and abuse; use Treatment for alcoholism: o Con be modified; 10-20 % stop on their own o 32% can stop with minimal help o Can be treated with cognitive-behavioural modification o High dropout rates; 60% return to alcohol o Heavily dependent on social environment High socially do well in treatment 68% Low socially do poorly in treatment 18% Programs: o AA: alcoholics anonymous most common source o Treatment usually use a broad spectrum cognitive therapy to treat biological/environmental factors in the problem o Goals:
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