Textbook Notes (369,099)
Canada (162,378)
York University (12,903)
Psychology (3,584)
PSYC 3170 (151)
Chapter 7

Health Psychology chapter 7.docx

10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Health Psychology chapter 7 Stress moderators- modify how stress is experienced and the effects it has o Has an effect on stress itself/stress-psychological responses/stress-illness/ Coping: o 1.Stress is always influenced by appraisal of it o Defined as the thought and behaviours used to manage internal/external demands of situations appraised as stressful o Relationship b.w. coping and stress is dynamic o Coping is not a onetime reaction o Coping is a set of responses/environment and ppl influence e.o. o 2.breadth: Many actions and reactions to stressful circumstances Personality and coping: o Characteristics Can be a result of both genes/environmental factors Negativity/stress/illness: o Negative affectivity: Pervasive negative mood marked by depression/hostility/anxiety o Some predisposed to certain personalities to experience stress and affects their psychological distress; affects rates of illnesses o High neuroticism have much distress/discomfort/dissatisfaction Prone to drink highly Prone to suicide Prone to depression Prone to poorer health in general Increased risk in diabetes, arthritis, liver/kidney disease, stomach, ulcers o Negative affectivity can be tied to high cortisol levels o Can also affect adjustment to treatment o Higher risk for mortality in old age o Can create false impression of poor health when none exists o High headaches, stomach aches, pains under stress o High in negativity; high vulnerability to illness; more hospital use than ppl low in negativity Pessimism: o Appraise situation in negative, unhopeful prone to poor health outcomes o Stable disposition to expect negative outcomes in future o Pessimistic explanatory style: Characteristically explain negative events of lives in terms of internal, stable, global qualities of themselves o Pessimism in early adulthood seems to be a risk factor for poor health in middle age o Correlated with ppl who have reduced immunocompetence o Dispositional pessimism may also compromise coping efforts and use of coping efforts like social support o May be linked so social-economic factors o Lower SES; greater expectancy of negative events; increase risks for poor health Coping resources: Optimism: o Can reduce risk for illness o Dispositional optimism: General expectancy that good things, will happen and not bad Use life orientation test o Optimism associated with less stress and less depression; increase in social support o More likely to seek out social support and to reinterpret positively the stressful circumstances they encountered; coped with university better o Positive moods leads to psych state of better resilience; better mental/physical healths o Tied to better resistance to flu; lower risks in mortality in elder diabetics o Promotes more active efforts to cope; improved long term for pscyh adjustments o Optimism associated with more use of problem-focused coping, social support, o Use more problem-focused coping; less denial; faster rates of recovery; better quality after surgery health o Lower blood pressures than pessimists; o Optimism makes use of available resources better; favourable appraisals o Sometimes it can be bad; experience short term psych costs Psychological control: o Belief that one can determine ones behaviour, influence ones own environment, bring about desired outcomes o Perceived control tied to self efficacy\ o May be especially protective of adaptive risky behaviours o Associated with better immune responses to their disease Coping with stressful medical procedures by Control enhancing intervention: o Info, relaxation, cognitive behavioural interventions are all successful in reducing anxiety, improving coping, overcoming medical procedures o High desire for control may benefit from control interventions o Can be bad if given too much control over something they feel they dont want to o Too much control, too many choices may be stressful Additional coping resources: o High self esteem may moderate stress-illness relationship o Better at low levels of stress; high levels can outweigh the esteem o Lower cortisol and ACTH in high self esteem; a biopsychosocial route b.w. esteem/illness o Ego strength, dependability, trust, lack of impulse appears to have health benefits High ego lived longer in longitunal study; less likely to smoke and use alcohol o Self confidence reduce stressors affecting psychological distresso Cheerful ppl die earlier for some reason; may be careless o Coherence of ones life/purpose/meaning/humour/trust/religion are internal resources that promote effective coping o Conscientiousness moderates stress-illness relationship More successful in avoided harmful situations; reliable in good health behaviours Coping style: o General propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way Approach vs. Avoidance: o Avoidant-minimizing events coping style May cope well with trip to dentist; but not chronic daily stress May not make enough cognitive and emotional efforts to anticipate and manage long terms o Approach-confrontative or vigilant coping style Effective if one can focus on the info in the present as opposed to ones emotions; Use actions to reduce the stressors May pay price in in anxiety and psych reactivity in short term May fret about trip to dentist; may make efforts to reduce daily strain Associated with benefits, lower stress, other coping r
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.