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Chapter 7

Health Psychology chapter 7.docx

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3170
Professor
Gerry Goldberg

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Health Psychology chapter 7 Stress moderators- modify how stress is experienced and the effects it has o Has an effect on stress itself/stress-psychological responses/stress-illness/ Coping: o 1.Stress is always influenced by appraisal of it o Defined as the thought and behaviours used to manage internal/external demands of situations appraised as stressful o Relationship b.w. coping and stress is dynamic o Coping is not a onetime reaction o Coping is a set of responses/environment and ppl influence e.o. o 2.breadth: Many actions and reactions to stressful circumstances Personality and coping: o Characteristics Can be a result of both genes/environmental factors Negativity/stress/illness: o Negative affectivity: Pervasive negative mood marked by depression/hostility/anxiety o Some predisposed to certain personalities to experience stress and affects their psychological distress; affects rates of illnesses o High neuroticism have much distress/discomfort/dissatisfaction Prone to drink highly Prone to suicide Prone to depression Prone to poorer health in general Increased risk in diabetes, arthritis, liver/kidney disease, stomach, ulcers o Negative affectivity can be tied to high cortisol levels o Can also affect adjustment to treatment o Higher risk for mortality in old age o Can create false impression of poor health when none exists o High headaches, stomach aches, pains under stress o High in negativity; high vulnerability to illness; more hospital use than ppl low in negativity Pessimism: o Appraise situation in negative, unhopeful prone to poor health outcomes o Stable disposition to expect negative outcomes in future o Pessimistic explanatory style: Characteristically explain negative events of lives in terms of internal, stable, global qualities of themselves o Pessimism in early adulthood seems to be a risk factor for poor health in middle age o Correlated with ppl who have reduced immunocompetence o Dispositional pessimism may also compromise coping efforts and use of coping efforts like social support o May be linked so social-economic factors o Lower SES; greater expectancy of negative events; increase risks for poor health Coping resources: Optimism: o Can reduce risk for illness o Dispositional optimism: General expectancy that good things, will happen and not bad Use life orientation test o Optimism associated with less stress and less depression; increase in social support o More likely to seek out social support and to reinterpret positively the stressful circumstances they encountered; coped with university better o Positive moods leads to psych state of better resilience; better mental/physical healths o Tied to better resistance to flu; lower risks in mortality in elder diabetics o Promotes more active efforts to cope; improved long term for pscyh adjustments o Optimism associated with more use of problem-focused coping, social support, o Use more problem-focused coping; less denial; faster rates of recovery; better quality after surgery health o Lower blood pressures than pessimists; o Optimism makes use of available resources better; favourable appraisals o Sometimes it can be bad; experience short term psych costs Psychological control: o Belief that one can determine ones behaviour, influence ones own environment, bring about desired outcomes o Perceived control tied to self efficacy\ o May be especially protective of adaptive risky behaviours o Associated with better immune responses to their disease Coping with stressful medical procedures by Control enhancing intervention: o Info, relaxation, cognitive behavioural interventions are all successful in reducing anxiety, improving coping, overcoming medical procedures o High desire for control may benefit from control interventions o Can be bad if given too much control over something they feel they dont want to o Too much control, too many choices may be stressful Additional coping resources: o High self esteem may moderate stress-illness relationship o Better at low levels of stress; high levels can outweigh the esteem o Lower cortisol and ACTH in high self esteem; a biopsychosocial route b.w. esteem/illness o Ego strength, dependability, trust, lack of impulse appears to have health benefits High ego lived longer in longitunal study; less likely to smoke and use alcohol o Self confidence reduce stressors affecting psychological distresso Cheerful ppl die earlier for some reason; may be careless o Coherence of ones life/purpose/meaning/humour/trust/religion are internal resources that promote effective coping o Conscientiousness moderates stress-illness relationship More successful in avoided harmful situations; reliable in good health behaviours Coping style: o General propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way Approach vs. Avoidance: o Avoidant-minimizing events coping style May cope well with trip to dentist; but not chronic daily stress May not make enough cognitive and emotional efforts to anticipate and manage long terms o Approach-confrontative or vigilant coping style Effective if one can focus on the info in the present as opposed to ones emotions; Use actions to reduce the stressors May pay price in in anxiety and psych reactivity in short term May fret about trip to dentist; may make efforts to reduce daily strain Associated with benefits, lower stress, other coping r
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