Textbook Notes (363,094)
Canada (158,187)
York University (12,355)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 3170 (150)
Chapter 8

Health Psychology Chapter 8.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Health Psychology Chapter 8 Using Health services  Psychological, social, and cultural factors all come into play when seeking care  Recognizing/interpreting symptoms: o Awareness limited  Recognition of a symptom: o Some keep going, some go right to their beds  Individual differences in personality: o Hypochondriacs- preoccupied and worried with symptoms being of illness nature  Make extensive use of medical tools  Only about 5% of pop. o Minor pains are very frequented misattributed o Older report more than younger ppl o Neuroticism also affects perception; recognize and report quickly  Cultural differences: \ o Evident; but reasons not understood o North American higher than Japanese reporting symptoms; Japanese have very healthy lives and activities  Attentional differences: o Influence the experience of symptoms o Bored, alone ppl report more than interested, social ppl living with others  I.e. less distractions; more attention to pains  Situational factors: o Boring=more attentive o Medical student’s disease- as they study illness they misattribute illness to themselves o Apparent symptoms tend to decrease while learning about the diseases form rather than perception  Stress: o Tend to believe more that they are ill; misinterpret easily due to increases of stress effects  Mood: o Mood influences self appraised health o Positive moods-appraise more healthy, fewer illnesses, fewer symptoms, o Negative moods- appraise more pessimism, more illness, more symptoms, more vulnerable, less action o When attention is outwards (activity and social scenes) symptoms less likely to be noticed  Interpretation: o Heavily a psychological process o Social/ psychological factors and environment ,culture, family history, very important very important to interpreting things  1.Prior experience: o Experience with a condition causes less seriousness than ppl with no history o Also by commonplace in their culture and personal acquaintances o I.e. widespread cancers may be perceived with less seriousness  2. Expectations: o Ignore unexpected; amplify symptoms expected  3. Seriousness of symptom: o Highly valued parts of body; more likely to require attn’ o If it causes pain it will lead person to seek a fix promptly o I.e. chest pain versus hand pain; more likely to check out hand pain cause it’s the now!  Cognitive representations of illness”:  Illness schemas: o These organized conceptions of illness are acquired through media/personal experience/family and friends who had the disorders o They can affect ppl preventative behaviours, reactions to symptoms, reactions to diagnosis, reaction to recommendations, future health o According to self regulatory model, 5 main components about illness:  1.identity-label for illness  2. Consequences-symptoms and treatments/ramifications to life  3.causes-factors that the person believes gave rise to the illness  4. Duration- expected length of time the illness is expected to last  5. Cure- identifies where person illness can be cured from o Illness conceptions develop early in life o 3 models of illness:  1. Acute illness: specific viral agents, short in duration, no long terms; flu  2. Chronic illness: health habits, long duration, severe consequences; heart disease  3. Cyclic illness: alternating symptoms and no symptom periods; herpes  Illnesses can be viewed by one or more; and perception affects how ppl look and treat them  Give them sense of info, influence treatment seeking, alter medication regimens, expectations about future health  Lay of referral network: o An informal network of family and friends who offer their own interpretations for symptoms well before any medic al treatment is sought after o Personal wisdom ppl/friendly advice/ folk remedies o 2/3 of ppl don’t consult health care providers o WHO categorizes folk remedies that are and aren’t successful o NHP-natural health products like vitamins minerals and the like  Also acupuncturists, massage therapists, chiropractors o Complementary include”:relaxing, hypnosis, imagery, reflexology o Some can increase risks of treatment conflicts  Internet: o Seek health info online very common o Women 2x as likely to use internet; with children more likely than without o Usually search diets nutrition exercise o Docs believe it can positively affect ppl  Health services: o Wait times seem to be the reason why ppl don’t get care they need o Key social determinant of health o Atypical symptoms, disability are common reason for ppl to seek help  1.Age: o Young and elderly use most o Decrease in adolescence; increase in late adulthood; chronic conditions develop  2.Gender: o Women use more than men; more likely to get consultations  Pregnancy  Better homeostatic mechanism than men; detect things earlier o Social norms predict as well: men macho /women vulnerable; i.e. more reporting’s by women o Economic factors predict as well: more time off for women; more checkups time o Women’s care is more fragmented: use different docs for different organs; gyno/breast examiner/ gp  3.Socio economic status: o Income status and education all factors o Poor unlikely to visit; while poor who do visit-will visit more times than rich ppl’s visits o Lower incomers have more emergency issues, more admission o Rural areas just like poor incomers  4. Culture: o Varies across ethnicity; minorities more likely to visit physician but not a specialist than Caucasians o Minorities used less cancer screenings o Aboriginals and blacks evened out the differences demographically o Ethnic minorities more likely to make 4+ visits compared to non minorities o Ethnic minorities less likely to visit specialists  5. Social psychological factors: o Attitudes and beliefs in health care services o Health belief model:  1. How they are Perceiving the threat  2. Degree to which they believe in effectiveness of health measure o Health care services influenced by socialization; actions of one’s parents o Used by ppl who have time, prior experience, beliefs in services, and access to services  How are health service misused: o Use service when no ‘real ‘need o Misinterpretation, cultural values, attitudes, accessibility implicated in misuse  1. Emotional disturbances: o 2/3 complain of psychological problems; stem from depression/anxiety o Physical symptoms from stress cause ppl to use cues wrongly o Worried well-concerned abt physical and mental health ; minor symptoms being problems; care for own health  Media, new ‘be healthy always’ increased the number of worried well o Somaticizers- express conflict through physical symptoms  Seek treatment through convincing selves of illness  Psychiatric disorders continue to be under recognized and undertreated in primary care  Evidence shows they are more of an interpersonal disorder rather than vigilance/misinterpretation  These ppl may just seek medical attn for reassurance o Polysymptomatic somaticizers- multiple chronic ailments; unresponsive to treatments; unexplained by medical diagnosis o Medical ailments perceived more real than psychological ailments; so doc is a good way to assure them  Chinese see emotional health as important ; more comfortable seeking help o Secondary gains- along with the gains of illness, this includes the ability to rest, cared for, misuse can therefore present malingering  Don’t want to go back to work or stressful home o Although defined above, they are hard to differ from real patients needs and therefore misuse is common  Some poor won’t pay for psych docs, so medical treatment is only way out  Docs more likely to see falsity in female patients than males claims to illness  Complicated physician bias and patient misuse  2.Delay behaviour o Without seeking care by living with a few important symptoms  i.e. heart attacks- ppl misattribute to chest pain/heart burn instead of attacks o appraisal delay-time it
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3170

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.