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Chapter 15

Health Psychology Chapter 15.docx

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

1 Health Psychology Chapter 15 Challenges for the future  Health promotion priorities for future o Many changes; alcohol unchanged; exercise up though o Obesity the issue growing o Diabetes and high BP on rise too o Social marketing  Application of marketing technologies developed in the commercial sector of the solution of social problems where the bottom line is behaviour change  Involves analysis, planning, execution, evaluation  Participation-one for the most known  Focus on those at risk o At risk- becoming increasingly important  Identified early need to learn to cope/modify  Help modify before they get it  By studying likelihood of ppl at risk, better targets  Prevention o Will continue to be a priority o Windows of vulnerability o Behavioural immunization  Smoking, drugs, eating programs  Campaigns to prepare before habits come  Focus on elderly o Rapid aging due to pop. Will leave many elder o Many chronic pains, depression, disease and disabled o Need to increase their quality of life o Intakes, exercise stress, community, better health outcomes o Community based should focus on helping elderly achieve high levels of functioning  Refocusing health promotion efforts o Early mortality down, but morbidity is focus or should be focus  Costs-wellbeing and societies cost in RA  Lifestyle change programs to improve diabetics health  Bc-all gov’t approach and seemed to be working  Healthy as possible for as long as possible imperative o Many chronics, so many comprehensive programs to treat many o Finding ways to integrate them into individuals lives important for future  Promoting resilience 2 o Although decreasing risk and morbidities; also improving important by adding meaning and social support to one’s life; for men in particular o Health psych have largely disregarded this; but now growing o Can optimism and control of self be taught?  Promotion as a part of medical practice o Health promotion must be implemented and improved for future o If annual physical contained more info of health... o Show healthy and ill better eating habits; since docs are authoritative o Reducing elderly isolation, falls, inactivity, malnutrition for future  SES and health disparities o More intense stressors and more health risk in low ses o Housing, violence, diet, sanitation, o True for both sexes, all ages; tends to narrow towards end of life o Alc, obesity, lipids, tobacco, psych resources among risks o Lower ses; higher chronic risks; low income 3x likely to diabetes o Mortality earlier among poorer o Targeting them for info and support important o Ethnic differences in health; aboriginals- worse qualities higher morbidities  Diabetes 2x higher ; even higher in reserve aboriginal areas  Life expectancy difference  Suicide higher; lower ses to explain; more stressors; less medical treatments to them  Social change to improve health o Individual change, coupled with societal changes o Could be better health care in CA o Social conditions breeding allostatic loads and coronary heart disease  Hostility and depression in these areas of society need change  Need to address not just individual risk, but social conditions in which they are embedded  Gender and health o Key social determinant of health(now studied as opposed to previous yrs)  Many study genital makeup differences; but others are apparent  Women outlive men by 7 yrs avg  More women end up alone in nursing homes  All different types of women and preferences have diff. Needs  Social, ethnic, sexual preference, age...  Senior women more likely cataracts and glaucoma, back, arthritis than senior men  Young aboriginals obese rates higher in women 3 o Women weren’t usual research subjects due to fear of lawsuits and hormones  Heart disease based on men and women ignored o Women have diff. Risks may be more or less virulent  Smoking 2x likely for women to be harmful  Biological chemistry, psych reactions all different  Reactions to treatment different;  Symptoms, ages of vulnerability, hitting menopause and heart disease risks  Women will be treated poorly than men without more women- research o Social issues such as violence need to be addressed  Where is stress research headed o Physiological, cognitive, motivational and behavioural consequences identified o Biopsychosocial route by which stress is adversely affected increases likelihood of illness are increasingly well understood o Occupational stress research-low control, high demands, lil social support,  Redesigning jobs stress; security; global economy effects though  Equipping workers with programs to deal is important for future o Demographics – 2 career families have more housework and stress  Adult children caring for elder parents  Females under stress, more work, responsibilities, sicker,  Solution and programs yet to emerge  Advances in stress management o Should focus at risk ppl for stress o Adjustment stress can shape interventions programs for good coping o Neurophysiology important for future research of stress and cateclomines  Peptides release, links to immune system and inflammatory responses o Social support networks for 2job families  Divorced, single need support  Less children; less family less support; future need for groups o Self help both real and virtual needed  Internet good avenue  What is the future of health services o Renewal one of most important issues facing Canada o Need to improve access to needed health care; improve quality of care; narrow gap for low ses to others care  Improving access: 4 o One of poorest physician to patient ratios; expected to worsen o Nursing shortage, wait times for specialists, o Easing restriction on foreign docs into country may help; also graduates o Telehealth- services that use communication technology to connect ppl with health services  Advice, consult, diagnose, audio/video conferencing o Interprofessional teams- implement them into health care more, practitioners, social workers, psychs  Share responsibilities with doc; good for complex situation where more help needed  Reduces travel and hassle of patients  Helps integrate goal of health prevention upon one visit  Improving quality of care: o Not as efficient as could be; failure to maximize; harm o Organization/management records; electronic records new improvement o 23% report health care caused an extra harm due to false knowledge o Strict adherence and handwahsing can prevent these nosocomial issues o Health psychs can be gr8 in providing campaigns and adherence for quality care  Narrowing gaps: o Inequality huge issue o More chronic issues and different rates of death, inactivity, morbidity, eating need to be addressed  Higher health needs there o Aboriginals access and care tried to be improved  Delivery and education added fo
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