PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Coronary Artery Disease, Nursing Shortage, Health Promotion

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24 Apr 2012
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Health Psychology Chapter 15
Challenges for the future
Health promotion priorities for future
o Many changes; alcohol unchanged; exercise up though
o Obesity the issue growing
o Diabetes and high BP on rise too
o Social marketing
Application of marketing technologies developed in the
commercial sector of the solution of social problems where the
bottom line is behaviour change
Involves analysis, planning, execution, evaluation
Participation-one for the most known
Focus on those at risk
o At risk- becoming increasingly important
Identified early need to learn to cope/modify
Help modify before they get it
By studying likelihood of ppl at risk, better targets
Prevention
o Will continue to be a priority
o Windows of vulnerability
o Behavioural immunization
Smoking, drugs, eating programs
Campaigns to prepare before habits come
Focus on elderly
o Rapid aging due to pop. Will leave many elder
o Many chronic pains, depression, disease and disabled
o Need to increase their quality of life
o Intakes, exercise stress, community, better health outcomes
o Community based should focus on helping elderly achieve high levels of
functioning
Refocusing health promotion efforts
o Early mortality down, but morbidity is focus or should be focus
Costs-wellbeing and societies cost in RA
Lifestyle change programs to improve diabetics health
Bc-all gov’t approach and seemed to be working
Healthy as possible for as long as possible imperative
o Many chronics, so many comprehensive programs to treat many
o Finding ways to integrate them into individuals lives important for future
Promoting resilience
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o Although decreasing risk and morbidities; also improving important by
adding meaning and social support to one’s life; for men in particular
o Health psych have largely disregarded this; but now growing
o Can optimism and control of self be taught?
Promotion as a part of medical practice
o Health promotion must be implemented and improved for future
o If annual physical contained more info of health...
o Show healthy and ill better eating habits; since docs are authoritative
o Reducing elderly isolation, falls, inactivity, malnutrition for future
SES and health disparities
o More intense stressors and more health risk in low ses
o Housing, violence, diet, sanitation,
o True for both sexes, all ages; tends to narrow towards end of life
o Alc, obesity, lipids, tobacco, psych resources among risks
o Lower ses; higher chronic risks; low income 3x likely to diabetes
o Mortality earlier among poorer
o Targeting them for info and support important
o Ethnic differences in health; aboriginals- worse qualities higher
morbidities
Diabetes 2x higher ; even higher in reserve aboriginal areas
Life expectancy difference
Suicide higher; lower ses to explain; more stressors; less medical
treatments to them
Social change to improve health
o Individual change, coupled with societal changes
o Could be better health care in CA
o Social conditions breeding allostatic loads and coronary heart disease
Hostility and depression in these areas of society need change
Need to address not just individual risk, but social conditions in
which they are embedded
Gender and health
o Key social determinant of health(now studied as opposed to previous yrs)
Many study genital makeup differences; but others are apparent
Women outlive men by 7 yrs avg
More women end up alone in nursing homes
All different types of women and preferences have diff. Needs
Social, ethnic, sexual preference, age...
Senior women more likely cataracts and glaucoma, back,
arthritis than senior men
Young aboriginals obese rates higher in women
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o Women weren’t usual research subjects due to fear of lawsuits and
hormones
Heart disease based on men and women ignored
o Women have diff. Risks may be more or less virulent
Smoking 2x likely for women to be harmful
Biological chemistry, psych reactions all different
Reactions to treatment different;
Symptoms, ages of vulnerability, hitting menopause and heart
disease risks
Women will be treated poorly than men without more women-
research
o Social issues such as violence need to be addressed
Where is stress research headed
o Physiological, cognitive, motivational and behavioural consequences
identified
o Biopsychosocial route by which stress is adversely affected increases
likelihood of illness are increasingly well understood
o Occupational stress research-low control, high demands, lil social support,
Redesigning jobs stress; security; global economy effects though
Equipping workers with programs to deal is important for future
o Demographics 2 career families have more housework and stress
Adult children caring for elder parents
Females under stress, more work, responsibilities, sicker,
Solution and programs yet to emerge
Advances in stress management
o Should focus at risk ppl for stress
o Adjustment stress can shape interventions programs for good coping
o Neurophysiology important for future research of stress and cateclomines
Peptides release, links to immune system and inflammatory
responses
o Social support networks for 2job families
Divorced, single need support
Less children; less family less support; future need for groups
o Self help both real and virtual needed
Internet good avenue
What is the future of health services
o Renewal one of most important issues facing Canada
o Need to improve access to needed health care; improve quality of care;
narrow gap for low ses to others care
Improving access:
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