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Chapter 1


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York University
PSYC 3170
Jennifer Mills

History of Psychology: Chapter 1 What is Health Psychology? health psychology is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill health psychologists promote interventions to help people get well or get over illness in 1948, the World Health organization defined health as a complete state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity rather than defining health as the absence of illness, health is recognized to be an achievment involving balance among physical, mental, and social well-being concerned with all aspects of health an illness across the lifespan health psychologists focus on health promotion and maintenance; activities that promote health( good exercise) they focus on prevention and treatment of illness (how to manage stress, or adjusting to illness) focus on etiology and correlates of health, illness, and dysfucntion etiology refers to origins or causes of illness, and health psychologists are especially interested in the behavioural and social factors that contribute to health and illness and dysfunction health psychologists analyze and attempt to improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy they study the impact of health institutions and health professional on peoples behaviour and develop recommendations for improving health care HOW HAS OUR VIEW OF THE MIND-RELATIONSHIP CHANGED OVER TIME? historically, philosophers have vacillated between the view that the mind and body are part of the same system and the idea that they are two separate ones in the earliest times, the mind and body were considered a unit early cultures believed that disease arose when evil spirits entered the body and that these spirits could be exorcised through the treatment process Archaeologists found StoneAge skulls with small holes that are believed to have been made with sharp stone tools intentionally (Trephination),which allowed evil spirits to leave body Greeks were among earliest civilizations to identify role of bodily functioning in health and illness developed a humoral theory of illness (first proposed by Hippocrates): disease arises when four circulating fluids of the body- blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm- are out of balance, function of treatment is to restore the balance among the humours personALITYtypes we believed to be associated with bodily temperaments in which one of the four humours dominated therefore they ascribed disease to bodily factors but believed these factors had an impact on the mind MiddleAges, more supernatural explanation of illness mysticism and demonology dominated concepts of disease, which were seen as gods punishment for evildoing cure often consisted of driving out evil by torturing the body throughout this time the church was the gaurdian of medical knowledge and medical practices took an religious overtone as the functions of the physician were absorbed by the priest, healing and the practice of religion becoming indistinguishable early years of the Renaissance, the patients thoughts and beliefs were viewed as central to changes in physical states imagination and emotion were seen as the means through which the individual could connect with God if an individual was always ill it was becuase of lack of faith and what was required was altering the imagination so as to restore the connection to God if physican was successful in curing a particular ailment, then the attack on illness involved changing physical pathologies and altering the imagination to induce bodily change consequently healing relied heavily on patients unwavering and pure belief in the words and practices of the physician Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) work in microscopy and Giovanni Morgagni's (1682-1771) contributions to autopsy lead to rejection of humoural theory of illness As a result of Decartes mind and body dualism, medicine looked more to the medical laboratory and bodily factors, rather than the mind as a basis for medical progress dualistic conception of the mind and body was strongly reinforced so that physicians became the guardians of the body, while philosophers and theologians became caretakers of the mind Psychoanalytic Contributions Sigmund Freud (1856- 1939);specific unconscious conflicts can produce particular physical disturbances that symbolize the repressed psychological conflicts in conversion hysteria the patient converts the conflict into a symptom via the voluntary nervous system; they become relatively free of the anxiety the conflict would otherwise produce Psychosomatic Medicine although true conversion hysteria responses are rarely seen, the idea that specific illnesses are produced by individuals internal conflicts was perpetuated in the work of Flanders Dunbar in the 1930s and FranzAlexander in the 1940s researchers linked patterns of personality rather than a single specific conflict to specific illnesses Freud believed that conversion reactions occur via the volunt
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