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Chapter 2

Health Psychology Chapter 2-textbook notes

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PSYC 3170
Jennifer Mills

CHAPTER 2 What is the Function of the Nervous System? the nervous system is a complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that functions to regulate many important bodily functions, including the response to and recovery from stress made up of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system the central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord the rest of the nerves in the body, including those that connect to the brain and spinal cord constitute the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system the somatic nervous system connects nerve fibres to voluntary muscles and provides the brain with feedback in the form of sensory information about voluntary movement the autonomic nervous system connects the central nervous system with all internal organs over which people do not customarily have control regulation of the autonomic nervous system occurs via the sympathetic nervous system the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in reactions to stress, it prepares the body to respond to emergencies to strong emotions and strenuous activity it is concerns with the mobilization and exertion of energy,AKAcatabolic system activation of the sympathetic system due to stress is often experienced as increased heart rate and tensing of muscles parasympathetic system controls the activities of organs under normal circumstances and acts antagonistically to the sympathetic nervous system after emergency, parasympathetic system restores body to normal state activation of the parasympathetic system is common during digestion and can be experienced as relaxation and drowsiness because it is concerned with conservation of energy is sometimes called anabolic system The BRAIN command centre of body receives sensory(afferent) impulses from the peripheral nerve endings and send efferent (motor) impulses to carry out necessary movement 3 sections: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain HINDBRAINAND MIDBRAIN hindbrain has 3 parts: medulla, pons, cerebellum medulla is responsible for the regulation of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration pons serves as a link between hindbrain and midbrain , helps control respiration cerebellum coordinates voluntary muscle movement, maintenance of balance and equilibrium, and the maintenance of muscle tone and posture the midbrain is major pathway for sensory and motor impulses moving between forebrain and hindbrain it responsible for visual/auditory reflexes THE FOREBRAIN two sections: diencephalon and telencephalon diencephalon is composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus thalamus is involved in the recognition of sensory stimuli and the relay of sensory impulses to cerebral cortex hypothalamus helps regulate the centres in the medulla that control cardiac functioning, blood pressure and respiration; regulates water in body, controls appetite and sexual desire with the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus helps regulate the endocrine system, which releases hormones, influencing the functioning in target organs throughout the body telencephalon has two hemispheres of cerebral cortex cerebral cortex is the largest portion of the brain involved in higher order intelligence, memory and personalITY cerebral cortex consists of four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital LIIMBIC SYSTEM structures of the limbic system play an important role in stress and emotional responses the amygdala and hippocampus are involved in detection of threat and in emotionally charged memories THE ROLE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS regulate nervous system functioning stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system prompts the secretionof large quantities of two neurotransmitters, epinephrine and norepinephrine, together termed the catecholamines the release of catecholamines prompts a variety of bodily changes: heart rate increases, heart capillaries dilate, blood vessels constrict, increasing blood pressure DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM approximately 1 in3 Canadians will be affected by a disorder of nervous system during lifetime the most common forms are epilepsy and parkinsons disease EPILEPSY affects 1 in every 100 Canadians no specific cause for the symptoms have been identified symptomatic epilepsy may be traced to injury during birth, severe injury to the head infectious disease (meningitis) and metabolic or nutritional disorders marked by seizures, cannot be cured CEREBRALPALSY approximately 50,000 children and adults in Canada manifest one or more symptoms of cerebral palsy chronic, nonprogressive disorder, marked by lack of muscle control stems from brain damage, usually during childbirth- or accident or physical abuse seizures, spasms, mental handicap, difficulties of sensation and perception, problems with sight, hearing, or speech ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE progressive and degenerative disease of the brain serious impairments in thinking and memory 2006-26.6 million estimated over 100 million worldwide,including 1 million Canadas or 1 in 85 PARKINSON'S DISEASE progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia, the group of nuclei that controls smooth motor coordination tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement approximately 100,000 Canadians suffer primarily strike people age 60 or older and men are more likely to develop depletion of neurotransmitter dopamine may be involved MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS ESTIMATED 55-75,000 Canadian affected, every year 1,000 new cases degenerative disease of certain brain tissues can cause paralysis, an occasionally blindness,deafness and mental deterioration early symptoms include numbness, double vision, dragging of the feet, loss of bladder or bowel control, speech difficulties and extreme fatigue autoimmune disorder because immune system fails to recognize its own tissue and attacks the myelin sheath surrounding the nerves HUNTINGTONS DISEASE hereditary disorder of the central nervous system chronic physical and mental deterioration symptoms include involuntary muscle spasms, loss of motor abilities, personal changes, and other signs of mental disintegration sometimes mistaken for epilepsy men and women equally affected, 1 in every 10,000 PARAPLEGIAAND QUDRAPLEGIA paraplegia is paralysis of the lower extremities of the body; it results from an injury to the lower portion of the spinal cord quadriplegia is paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; it occurs when the upper portion of the spinal cord is severed once the spinal cord has been severed, no motor impulses can descend to tissues below the cut nor can sensory impulses from tissues, below the cut ascend to the brain loses bladder and bowel control 40,000 Canadians live with some form of spinal cord injury HOW DOES THE ENOCRINE SYSTEM OPERATE OVERVIEW endocrine system complements the nervous system in controlling bodily activities the nervous system is chiefly responsible
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