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Chapter 8

PSYC 3260 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Exosphere, Fault Tolerance, Implicit Memory

Course Code
PSYC 3260
Norman Park

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CHAPTER 8 general knowledge
Semantic memory—organized knowledge about the world—general facts
oKnowledge or info-does not specify how we acquired that info
oLexical or language knowledge—concepptual knowledge
oHelps us determine locations, read sentances, solve problems
oCategories and concepts are essential compenents
oi.e. the capital of a city
otwo approaches to semantic memory: the prototype approach and the
exemplar approach
oallows us to draw inferences
category—set of objects that belong togeather
concept—mental representations of a category
oconcept of fruit refers to your mental representation of the objects in
that category
Episodic memory—info abt events that happen to us
oPersomal experiemces—when, where, how event happened to you
oi.e. this morning in my science class I learned the capital of a city
semantics—the meaning of individual words
Inference—logical interpretations and conclusions that were never part of
the original stimulus
oAllow you to go beyond the given info
Situated cognition approach—we make use of info in the immediate
environment or situation
With respect to our GK, we tend to code a concept in terms of the context in
which we learned the info
Prototype and exemplar approaches focus on categorization
prototype approach—you decide whether a particular item belongs to a
category by compairing this item with a prototypeeleanor rosch
Approach to semantic memory
prototype—the item that is the best, most typical example of a
categorythe ideal representatative of this category
if the item is similar to th prototype, you include that item within this
i.e. you conclude that a robin is a bird because it matches your ideal
prototype for a bird
members of a category differ in their prototypicality, the degree to which
they are representative of their category
oi.e. a robin anf a sparrow are very prototypical birds, whereas an
ostrich and penguin are nonprototypes
situated cognition approach emphasizes the importance of context and
specific situations—i.e. in the context of a zoo, you may consider an ostrich
and a penguin to be prototypical
graded structure—all members of a category are not equalbegins with
the most representative or prototypical members, and it continues on
through the categories nonprototypical members
characteristics of prototypesprototypes differ from the nonprototypical
members of categories in three respects
oprototypes are supplied as examples of a category
if asked to name a member of a category you will prob name a
typicality effect—occurs when ppl judge typical items
(prototypes) faster than items that are not typicaloperates with
everyday items
oprototypes are judged more quickly than nonprototypes after semantic
semantic priming effect—means that ppl respond faster to an
item id it was preceeded by an item with similar meaning
oprototypes share attributes in a family resemblance category
family resemblance—no single attribute is shared by all
examples of a concept, but each example has at least one attribute
in common with some other examples of the concept
levels of categorization—jedges the way our semantic categories are
structured—object can be categorized at several diff levels
osuperordinate-level catagories—they are higher level catagories/more
furniture, animal, tool
obasic level catagories—moderatley specificchair, dog, screwdriver
more useful
used to identify objects
ppl generally use basic level names—produce these names faster
more likely to produce the semantic priming effect
osubordinate level catagories—lower level/more specificdesk chair,
collie, phillip screwdriver
a prototype is not the same as a basic level category—prototype is the best
example of a categorybasic level refers to a category that is neither to
general or too specific
diff levels of categorization activate diff regions of the brain
osuoerordinate (toy) more likely than basic to activate part of prefrontal
cortexthis part of cortex processes language and associative memory
osubordinate terms more likely then basic to activate the parietal region
of the brain—parietal lobe is active when you perform visual search
exemplar approach—we first learn info abt some specific examples of a
concept; then we classify each new stimulus be deciding how closely it
resembles all of those specific examples
exemplar—each of those examples stored in memory
approach emphasizes that your concept of dog would include info abt
numerous examples of dogs you have known
oin contrast, the prototype approach would argue that your prototype of
a dog would be an idealized representation of a dog, with average size
for a dof and average other features—but not like any particular dog
you’ve ever seen
approach has successfully predicted ppls performance on artificial
categories, such as cartoon faces
left hemisphere stores prototypes—right hemisphere stores exemplars
compairing the prototype and exemplar
both categories state that you make decisions abt category membership by
compairing a new item against some stored representation of the category
prototype proposes that your stored representation is a typical member of
the category
omore suitable when considering a category that has numerous members
exemplar proposes that your stored representation is a collection of
numerous specific members of the category
oemphasizes that ppl do not need to perform any kind of abstraction
oon problem: our semantic memory would quickly become
overpopulated with numerous exemplars for numerous
categoriestherefore more suitable when you think abt a category that
has relatively few members
individual diff may be substantial in the way ppl represent categories
network models of semantic memory
concerned abt the interconnections among related items
network models—a network style organization of concepts in memory
witth numerous interconnections
node—or one unit located within the network—each concept is a node
owhen you see or hear the name of a concept, the node representing that
concept is activated
spreading activation—the activation expands or spreads from that node to
other connected nodes
allan Collins and Elizabeth loftus—developed the classic network theory
of semantic memory
Anderson’s ACT-R approach
adaptive control of thought rational—attempts to account for human
performance on a wide variety of tasks
declarative knowledge—models more specific view—knowledge about
facts and things
the meaning of a sentence can be represented by a propositional network,
which is a pattern of interconnected propositions
proposition—is the smallest unit of knowledge that ppl can judge to be
either true or false
oi.e. the phrase white cat does not qualify as a proposition bcause we
cannot determine if its true or false
opropositions are abstract
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