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Chapter 1

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PSYC 3280
Sonja Mac Donald

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL BEHAVIOR WHY WE STUDY ANIMAL BEHAVIOR o by studying animals, we learn much about the relationships between them and their environments, the physiological processes that determine their behavior, and some of the reasons for their abundance and distribution  the survival of a species depends on it individual member’s ability to obtain food and shelter, to find mates and reproduce, and to protect themselves from parasites, predators and the elements  adaptive behavior ensures survival, and survival ensures evolutionary success o the study of animal behavioral is enormously important, both scientifically and economically  ex. behaviorist are interested in establishing general principles common to all animal behavior including our own, some are interested solely in the actions of economically important predators, others are interested in economically important animals like predators, and pests o four basic sects of animal behavior in the book: behavioral genetics and evolution, mechanisms of behavior, food and shelter, and social organization and mating THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY: A CASE STUDY o each population has evolved different behavioral and physiological responses that adapt them to their respective environments Behavioral Genetics and Evolution 1. Why do Midwestern and western populations migrate, from colonies, and diapause, while the eastern population migrates but does not form colonies or enter reproductive diapause? 2. Why should the western population of monarchs migrate just to the coast of California while the Midwestern population continue to Mexico by migrating across the Gulf of Mexico? Mechanisms of Behavior 1. These different populations must share a common monarch ancestor, but why should the monarch’s evolutionary “strategy” for surviving the winter months be so different from those of other butterfly species, which typically overwinter as larvae or pupae? 2. How is it that monarch butterflies from Ontario can fly unerringly to the roosts of Mexico (5000km)? And what physiological mechanism leads these butterflies to locations high in the mountains of Mexico – to occupy
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