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PSYC 3280 (11)
Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3280
Professor
Suzanne Mcdonald
Semester
Fall

Description
10/15/2013 CHAPTER 1: Principals of Animal Behaviour  Scientific method: scientific observation, measurement and experiment and the formulation, testing  and modification of hypotheses  Ethology: study of animal behaviour  The earliest cave painting depicted animal – they were interested in understanding other life forms  Types of questions and levels of analysis There are four types of questions that ethologists ask: Mechanisms: what kind of stimuli or neuro change elicits behaviour  Development: how does behaviour change when animals mature  Survival value: how does behaviour affect survival or reproduction Evolutionary history: how does behaviour vary as a function of evolutionary history  Evolutionary history = phylogeny  There are two different kinds of analyses used in animal behaviour  Proximate analysis: focus on immediate causes (covers first two types of questions) Ultimate analysis: what evolutionary forces have shaped a trait overtime (covers the latter two  question types)  What is Behaviour? It is the coordinated responses of whole living organisms to internal or external stimuli  Three Foundations Natural selection: process whereby traits that confer the highest relative reproductive success on their  bearers and that are heritable increase in frequency over generations (ultimate analysis)  Individual learning: can alter the frequency of behaviours displayed by an organism within their  lifetime (proximate analysis)  Cultural transmission: situations in which animals learn something by copying the behaviours of  others through social learning  Natural Selection If a 
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