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PSYC 3310 (60)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

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York University
PSYC 3310
Gwen Jenkins

Chapter 5 Deception Detection in the Legal System: Forensic Psychology and Investigative Techniques: Traditionally, courts of law assumed judges/juries able to determine whether someone telling truth on stand o But injustice cuz of inability of legal decision makers to recognize lying Dissociative amnesia- little/no memory for event o When traumatized by event, even perpetrators of extreme violence get DA o Cant be attributed to head injury/intoxication Credibility assessment o Hypnosis/polygraph Can Police Officers and Judges Accurately Detect Deception?: Triers of fact decision making subject to biases Judges form impressions of credibility from witnesses demeanour that influences decisions, but little evidence for validity of this process o Suggestions that both judges/cops poorly equipped to identify deceit Perform around level of chance Widespread reliance in stereotypical cues to lying that arent valid When relied on a single dominant cute to lying/gut instinct, tended to make mistakes Ppl tend to associate nervousness [speech errors, gaze aversion] body movements/shifting with lying o Research shows liars often beh in completely diff manner Hypnosis in Criminal Investigations: Use grew rapidly in 1970s cuz rules in most regions permitted wide admissibility of hypnotically induced memories Hypno-techicion aka forensic hypnotists, were law-enforcement officers trained in hypnotism Advocates and Sceptics: Some say using it enhanced investigatively useful recall in 75% of cases, accuracy levels of elicited info was around 90% Others rejected notion of special hypnotic state o Hypnosis is learned role-playing beh o When ppl are hypnotically age regressed they come to accept/believe suggestions were abused in past life Hyp can result in implausible memories H only possible with the most suggestible individs who are especially prone to false memories following exposure to misleading info o When false memories happen, can be held confidently by person Probative value of such testimony overcome by risks of false confidence and distorted recollections Cops assume that mostly whats recalled under hypnosis is the truth, @ least as the person remembers it o This truth and accuracy arent same thing Expert who believes efficacy of hypnosis will believe a hypnotically induced testimonial thats actually elaborate deception o Eg hillside strangler The Hillside Strangler Case: Under hypnosis suspect Kenneth bianchi began to display classic manifestations of multiple personality o Alter-ego steve who took responsibility for murders o Ken said knew nothing of murders Lawyer plead NGRI He was able to manipulate psychiats/ologists who were hypnosis experts One psych found out he was malingering o Tricked him, found while he was supposedly hypnotized he overreacted, did things during hallucinations that were inconsistent with actual reactions of ppl while hypnod Some thought he didnt fake cuz they thought he couldnt possibly know all the info they knew o Belief in intricacy/obscurity of their specialty become blind to obvious In an experiment, hypnotized participants receive explicitly suggestive interview more likely to manifest symptoms of multiple personality disorder o To see if ppl really could produce a second personality Hypnosis of Suspects, Witnesses, and Victims: Can be used to get info from defendant about crime Recently RCMP changed view on hypnosis with suspects o Since subjs can confabulate during hypnotic session, accuracy of all info obtained through it must be varied/corroborated through investigation Common to help witness remember more about crimeSupportive Research Reviews: Studies with ecological validity more likely field results comparable to those found in witnesses in real crime cases When is Hypnosis Beneficial?: Some say unable to document improvement in memory for hypnotized subjects but find a clear demonstration they were more suggestible 3 factors that elicit additional correct info under hypnotic recall o Interactive interview with skilled interviewer o Longer-delayed tests of recall o Use of realistic materials that had arousal effects Hypothesized increase in recall accuracy for hypnotized subjs hasnt been substantiated by research to date o When nonleading questions, only slight edge over control o With leading questions, have recall deficit compared to controls o Recall perf of hypnod subjs shows wide variability
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