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Chapter 5, 8

PSYC 3410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5, 8: Reciprocal Inhibition, Systematic Desensitization, Aversion Therapy

Course Code
PSYC 3410
Elissa Rodkey
5, 8

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Classical Conditionings:
Underlying Processes and
Practical Applications-CH 5
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
-classical conditioning is salient in our lives when it comes to the development of fears and
-normally fear conditioning is good because it teaches an individual to fear something that is
dangerous, however, sometimes in irrational fears where the fearful events are not dangerous
at all (overexageration = phobia)
-in the little albert experiment, the baby was conditioned to fear a toy rat because it was paired
with a loud noise, however, he started fearing objects that looked similar to the rat
-although little albert learned fear, this experiment does not show the development of a true
phobia because that usually occurs after one pairing
-observational learning, temperament, preparedness, selective sensitization, US revaluation,
incubation, and history of control are all involved in the development of a phobia
-observational learning
many phobias are acquired when observing fearful reactions in others even if the individual
had no direct confrontation with the CS
the base level of emotionality and reactivity to stimulation
affects how easily a conditioned response can be acquired
a genetically based predisposition to learn certain kinds of associations more easily than
-history of control
a history of being able to control important events in one’s environment
the strenghtening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposeures to the
aversiv CS
this is because people tend to avoid fearful situations
-US Revaluation
exposure to a US of a different intensity than that used during conditioning can alter the
strength of the response to a previously conditioned CS
-selective sensitizaion
an increase in one’s reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an
unrelated stressful event
during turbulent times in a person’s life, minor fears may become exacerbated into major
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