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Evolutionary Psych Ch 3 Notes.docx

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Evolutionary Psych Ch 3 Notes Hostile Nature Forces- forces impeding survival  Climate, weather, food shortages, toxins, diseases, parasites, predators, conspecifics Folk Biology- inherent biological phenomena understanding  Living things have internal essence  Universal & appears early in life  Ex. People divide plants & animals Food Preferences • People spend most on food • Western World: 21% income spent on food • 3 world: 50% spent on food **Sweet foods: calorically rich **Avoid bitter/sour; tend to contain toxins Neophobia- aversion to new foods **disgust defensive mechanism against microbial attack *to reproduce, you must survive ↑ **being omnivores; eating wide food variety poisoning odds -food part a preoccupation, verbal discourse, social interaction, religious belief Disgust DiseaseAvoidance Hypothesis-Disgust helps us avoid disease • Disgust towards disease carrying substances • Universal elicitors: rotten, dirty, foul smelling, moldy… • Disgust universally recognized • Study: W find disease carrying objects more disgusting • ***can be situation dependent, can be shut down/overridden in some situations Baby Poop Smelling Study: mothers rated their baby’s poop as less disgusting than other infant’s poop Embryo Protection Hypothesis (EPH) - pregnancy sickness adaptive to prevent mom from consuming teratogens Evidence • most repugnant foods have highest toxins st o meat avoidance during 1 trimester • morning sickness when fetus most vulnerable to toxins (2-4 wk) • pregnancy sickness gone @ 8 wkh • W without pregnancy sickness more likely spontaneous abortion Safrole- carcinogen/mutagen in black pepper Cauliflower & broccoli isothiocyanate Cooking Hypothesis- fire/cooking key to human’s evolution of large brains  Cooking frees energy, reduces digestion costs, kills microbes Evidence • Cooking causes ↑ energy • Makes food easily digestible • Cooking universal • Raw foods/veges cannot provide enough energy • Difficult to survive on raw food diet Secondary Compounds- defensive mechanisms preventing macro & microorganisms from eating plants Antimicrobial Hypothesis- spices kill microbes, preventing us from being ill. People discovered spice use made them less sick Evidence • All spices shown to kills bacteria o **onion, garlic, allspice, oregano • More spices used in hotter climates; where food spoils quicker • Spices more often used in meat dishes Frugivory by Product Hypothesis- human penchant for drinking is by product from ripe fruit fondess  Ripe fruits high in ethanol & sugar **humans consume most meat of all primates Hunting Hypothesis- large game hunting helped human evolution Evidence • 20-40% diet from meat • Hunter gatherer tribes spend ~1/2 time hunting • Small Intestines only in humans; for protein degradation & absorption • Humans cannot produce some vits Provisioning Hypothesis- hunting explains emergence of heavy M parental investment HuntingAccounts for • Large M parental input • Strong male coalitions • Strong reciprocal altruism- unique in humans • Social exchange • Labour’s sexual division- men more suited to hunt Show Off Hypothesis- W prefer show off neighbours; benefit from getting leftover meat  Men hunt to gain status benefits from sharing their bounty, not to provide for their family Study: better hunters have more desirable mates, higher offspring survival Gathering Hypothesis- W provided critical survival impetus through gathering. Stone tools invented for digging up plants, not hunting  Gathering plant foods with stone tools provided primary evolutionary force for modern humans  Says hunting emerged later & didn’t play large role Hunting Hypothesis Gathering Hypothesis • Explains labour division between sexes • Doesn’t account for labour division • between sexes, M’s high parental investment, male coalitions, why humans go to environments lacking plant resources, human gut structure Hunter/Gatherer Theory of SpatialAbilities- men show superior abilities in spatial tasks facilitating successful hunting  M: “navigational abi
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