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Evoluntionary Psych Ch 2 Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Evoluntionary Psych Ch 2 Notes Nightclub Study(Grammer) • Single men more likely touch women whose in fertile stage of cycle (ovulation) • Men might be able to detect ovulation • Ovulating W initiated sexual encounters more often **callus example of evolution due to NS *we carry adaptive mechanisms that helped our ancestors 3 Adaptive Mechanism Theories 1. Creationism aka Intelligent Design- everything created by deity o Not scientific because:  Cannot be empirically tested  Hasn’t guided research to any new scientific discoveries  Hasn’t been useful as scientific explanation for already discovered organic mechanisms 2. Seeding Theory- life originated on other planet; brought by meteorite/aliens  No evidence seeding has occurred  Hasn’t lead to any new scientific discoveries  Pushes explanation of life back in time; doesn’t answer anything 3. NS Evolution  Explains known facts  Leads to new predictions  Provides guidance to important inquiry  ***only theory accounting for adaptive mechanism’s origins & structures Adaptation’s Function- how it contributes to survival/reproduction EEA(Environment of EvolutionaryAdaptedness)- selection forces, adaptive problems responsible for shaping adaption over time  Selection force responsible for shaping adaptation Evolution Period- time during adaptation’s construction until it characterized universal design in that species *****adaptations are primary product of NS Evolution******* 3 Evolutionary Products 1. Adaptations- inherited characteristic through NS because it helped solve survival/reproduction prob o Ex. Umbilical cord o *must have inheritable genes o Most rea species typical; must develop among species members o Adaptation may appear anytime during life 2. By Products- characteristics with no functional design; carried along with adaptation o Ex. Belly button 3. Noise/Random Effect- due to mutantions, changes in development, environment o Ex. Innie/outtie belly button Parental Investment Theory- sex investing more is choosy one EvolutionaryAnalysis Levels 1. General Evolutionary Theory- differential gene replication is Evolution’s engine o Ex. Evolution by NS o Very broad 2. Mid-Level Theories o Must be compatible with general evolutionary theory but still stand/fall on own merits o Ex Parental Investment (Triver), ReciprocalAltruism 3. Specific Evolutionary Hypotheses- still support general theory, but go in more depth than mid-level 2 Strategies for Generating/Testing Hypotheses Top Down aka Theory Driven Bottom Up • start with theory; drive hypotheses • Starts with observation, generate • General to specific hypotheses to get theory • Specific to general • Reverse engineering -W’s appearance provides fertility cues  WHR (waist-hip ratio); low WHR linked to fertility.  Low WHR get pregnant sooner, high WHR get HD & problems *breasts & hip/waste receive more initial visual fixations *all animals have nature- qualities defining them as unique species Evolved Psychological Mechanism (EPM) Definition  Procedure set designed to take narrow info range & transform it via decision rules into output that’s hi
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