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Evolutionary Psych Notes Ch1.docx

5 Pages

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

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Evolutionary Psych Notes- Ch 1 4 Questions of Evolutionary Psychology 1. Why mind designed the way it is 2. How is human mind designed 3. What are functions of mind’s parts & its structure 4. How does input from environment interact with human mind’s design to produce behaviours Evolution Before Darwin; Pointing to beliefs of evoution • Lemarck o First to use word biologie o 2 major causes of change: 1. Tendency to progress to higher form 2.Acquired characteristic inheritance • Cuvier o Catastrophism- extinction by sudden catastrophes (meteorites) & new species emergence • Fossil records • Comparative embryology • Species characteristics serve purpose Darwin • Cambridge University • Naturalist on Beagle (1831-1836) • **Galapagos Islands; Finches & Tortoises helped him to form NS o Had common ancestor but each diverged due to local ecological conditions • Inspired by Malthus’s Essay: Principle of Population o Organisms exist in numbers far greater than can survive & reproduce o Struggle for existence; favourable variations exist. Generation after generation producing new adaptations 3 Ingredients of NS (Darwin) 1. Variation- organisms vary widely. Variations provide evolution’s raw materials 2. Inheritance- only inheritable variations involved in evolution 3. Selection- some organisms survive & reproduce more o Differential reproductive success Sexual Selection- adaptations due to successful mating • Creates sexual dimorphism Sexual Selection (Darwin) • Intrasexual Selection- competition between same sex o Greater size, strength, athletic ability • Intersexual Selection (preferred mating)- between sexes o Individuals with desirable traits reproduce more o Female choice Causes of Evolution • NS • Genetic Drift • Founder effect • Mutations Genetic Drift- random changes in pop’s genetic makeup o Random changes from mutation, founder effect, genetic bottleneck Founder Effect- small portion of pop establishes new colony Genetic Bottleneck- pop shrinks; due to catastrophe **NS primary cause of evolution & only known cause of adaptation Punctuated Equilibrium- long periods of no change 3 Important Facts about NS 1. NS not only evolutionary cause 2. NS not intentional/forward looking o Only acts on already existent variations o NS is gradual 3. United all species onto tree of life **blended inheritance proven wrong *partial forms of adaptations advantageous -Mendel showed particulate inheritance Gene- smallest discrete inheritable unit **Genotypes not passed down intact Modern Synthesis- Darwin’s NS + Mendel’s Inheritance Ethology- study of proximate mechanisms & adaptive value of animal behaviour  Lorenz  Imprinting, FAPs 4 Whys of Ethology 1. Immediate influences on behaviour 2. Developmental influences on behaviour 3. Function of behaviour 4. Evolutionary/phylogenetic origins of behaviour FAPs(FixedAction Patterns)- stereotypical behaviours triggered by stimulus; go to completion once triggered Classical Fitness Inclusive Fitness • Direct reproductive success • Indirect reproductive success • Classical fitness + effects of individuals actions on relative’s reproductive success • By Hamilton Genetic Relatedness • Parent & Child: 0.5 • Full Siblings: 0.5 • Grandparent/grandchild: 0.25 • Uncles & nieces: 0.25 • Hstf siblings: 0.25 • 1 c
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