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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 evolutionary psychology.doc

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York University
PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 11 evolutionary psychology Conflict between the sexes: Sexual conflicts-conflict b.w. Evolutionary interest of individuals I.e. Genetic interest; sexual conflicts can erupt Strategic interference theory: Short term mating strategies differ, desire, Sexes can fulfill conflicting desires-aka- strategic interference 1.occurs when person employs strategy to get goal and another blocks this strategy o Conflict over strategies o Deception in dating world. Coercive control, lowering self esteem of partners 2.negative emotions are psych solutions to solve adaptive problems posed by the strategic interference o Painful- sadness, anger, distress; leading to marking events, leading to action Conflict serves no adaptive purpose, not adaptive; undesirable by- product of differing ppls Men cant be united vs. Women; but they compete with own gender Conflict about the occurrence and timing of sex: 47% report disagreements abt sex; 53% of women one man overestimated intimacy; 45% men underestimated intimacy Men preserve investment for long term ; yet women covet the investment of long term o Conflict over sexual access: Inferences about sexual intent: Women acting friendly study- o Women reported 6.5/ friendliness, sexiness 2.0, and 1.8seductive o Men friendliness 6, sexiness 3.3, sex intent 3.8 o Men show misperception bias Brazil college- o Brazilian chose more sexuality than American college o Men across cultures showed more perceived sex intent from women This mechanism evolved over history to create threshold Susceptible to manipulation More women than men report smiling as means of special treatment of opposite sex, even w/o interest Friendly actions at supermarket cause more sex inference and harassment Leads to conflicts! Deception about commitment: Men intentionally deceive for emotional commitment 1 71% men exaggerated; 39% women did too 44% falsely implied stronger feelings 42% exaggerated trusts and sincerity 36% lied of compatibility 25%stronger feelings in order to have sex Man who makes poor choice of sex partner risked losing small time and resources ; although rage of other husband is bad Ancestral women who made poor choice of casual mate, allowing deceit, risked it all Tremendous selection of vigilance to detect cues of deception Women evolved this by courtship costs- time, energy, commitment=more opportunity to judge man Woman ask friends for opinions; men dont devote to this Cognitive biases in sexual mind reading: Forced to make inferences of intent; can assume what isnt there, or fail to see something that is there Error management theory-unlikely that cost benefits of the two types of errors ^ would be identical occurrences Asymmetries in cost benefit consequences of mind reading create selection pressures that give cognitive biases; like smoke alarm 1.Overperception bias-minimize missed sexual opportunities; men infer sex intent when there is none; high perceived mate value=more prone to this thinkingminimizing costs for sex 2. Commitment skepticism bias- women involved inferential bias designed to underestimate mens actual level of romantic commitment in courtship o Minimizes costs of deceit by perceiving flowers as a trick and not genuine emotions Sexual withholding: Tease, men judge withholding 5/7 whereas women judged 4.2 Preserves women the right to choose more; women increase value by withholding; scarcity increasing price; investment will signal right man giving resources! Conflict is males want sooner; women want to choose n withhold! Manipulating mens perception of value- desirable women are sexually inaccessible to average Joe; women exploit this by withholding; makes men judge them as potential long termers Sexual aggression and evolved defenses against sexual aggression: o Sexual harassment: Workplace too, unwanted unsolicited sexual attn.; ranges Motivated by short term encounter; not excluding long term or power Typically victims are women 42% women, 15% men 2 Young, attractive single women most likely; over 40 less; 20-35 =72% of complaint; while comprising only 43% of labor force 45= 28% of the force, filed 5% of the time for harassment 63% of women would be insulted; 17% would be flattered if asked for sex Men- 15% insulted; 67% flattery Women most upset by persistent advances by construction worker 4/7;garbage men 4.3; cleaning 4.1; gas station 4.1; Least upset by premed students 2.6; grad 2.8; rock stars 2.7 Status and power interact; women hate being subservient to low status o Sexual aggressiveness: Men use to minimize costs for sex access; may cost in retaliation or reputation though Women rated 6.5/7 sexual aggression-upsetting Men Less bothered by woman aggression; 3/7 when by woman Infidelity 6/7 upsetting to men; verbal abuse 5.5/7 Men think 5.8/7 is aggressiveness compared to 6.5 by women; meaning they dont think like women b.c. Dont appreciate distress they cause to women o Do men have evolved rape adaptations: Scorpion flies have clamp for this purpose only Rape as adaption theory-favored men in some circumstances Vulnerable rape victims- war, no protec
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