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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Evolutionary Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3420
Professor
Irwin Silverman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1 Evolutionary Psychology  Foundations of evolutionary: o Neanderthal man found 50,000 yrs ago, early homicide victim o Fractures and dents more than women; left frontal skull; right handed attacker  Can’t tell us combat was normal or that more aggressive sex o Brain is the most complex; 1,350 cubic cm; new goal of evo Psyc o Focuses on 4 main Q’s: o 1. Why it’s designed the way it is- what caused it to be... o 2. How is human mind designed- mechanism and parts, organization o 3. What are the functions of the component part and structure= whets its purpose o 4. How does input from current environment interact with the design of the human mind to produce observable behaviour?  Ancient Greeks A/P studied the mind; Freud too; skinner  Past few decades to see all disciplines coming together-Psyc, learning, warfare, self-esteem, status, parenting –all under one evolutionary psych  Landmarks in the history of evolutionary thinking: o Evolution before Darwin:  Change over time, change in life forms before by scientists  Jean baptise Pierre Antoine de Monet chevalier de lamark-1744-1829 was one of first to use word biologie thus studying life as a science  Lamarck believed: 1. Progress towards higher form 2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Must struggle to survive , enlarging nerve secretion, enlarging organs  Necks of giraffes probably from striving for higher leaves  These were passed down and acquired  Baron gorgers Cuvier 1769-1832- proposed theory catasrophism:  Species are extinguished periodically by catastrophes such as meteors; replaced by other species  Some noted similarities of species to humans; birds to flipper; chimps to us... Page 1 of 9  Change over time seen from fossil records, bones changed, organic structure change  Embryonical development of different species: strikingly similar in species that otherwise seems diff from another  Loop like pattern of arteries- same ancestors milling of yrs ago  All these evidences before 1859 suggested life was changing  Many also saw characteristics for certain species; quills of porcupine help defense; turtle shell,  The mechanisms of change weren’t seen though o Darwin’s theory of natural selection:  Why change takes place, and ways change proceeds; how new emergence, vanishing species...etc...  Darwin took a voyage after Cambridge, on the beagle in 1813 for 5 yrs, to Galapagos islands- found finches-m were all different yet same species  Common ancestor who diverged and local ecological conditions changed their makeup- pivotal to Darwin’s conclusion that species aren’t immutable but change  The existence of adaptations halted him from accepting others ‘explanations  Darwin used Malthus essay on population principle in 1798 to note that: organisms exist in number greater than can survive and reproduce; struggle for existence-favorable variations tend to be preserved; others die out  1. Theory of natural selection and 3 main ingredients  A. Variation b. Inheritance c. Selection  A.Variation:Organisms vary, this is essential for evolution to operate and gives materials to work with evolution  B. Inheritance: passed down reliably parents to offspring; wing deformities by accidents aren’t inherited by offspring-only those variations that are inherited play role in evolutionary process  C. Selection: some heritable variants leave more offspring b.c. they help with survival and reproduction Page 2 of 9  Organisms can live many years and not pass its qualities to future; thus a differential reproductive success- bottom line of evolution by natural selection  Differential-success or failure is defined by success relative to others; more frequent if successful; b.c. survival is key for reproduction o Darwin’s theory of sexual selection:  Survival selection-some things had nothing to do with selection at all;  Plumage of peacock seems to be open invite from predators;  Natural selection focused on adaptation to survival;  Sexual selection focused on adaptations for mating  A.Intrasexual competition: between one sex- outcomes to mates finding o These traits will be passed on ; as female likes it  B.Intersexual selection: preferential mate choice; those who have qualities desired, will mate-those who don’t wont. o Aka- female choice- as they are choosy of mates  Sexual selection succeeded in explaining the anomalies o Role of natural selection and sexual selection in evolutionary theory:  A/B aren’t only causes for evolutionary change  1. Genetic drift-  random changes in population, which come about through  A. Mutation- random hereditary dna changes  B. Founder effect- small portion of population makes a new colony and are not genetically representative of the original population o I.e. more red heds at beg. More red hed later on too  C. Bottle necks- population shrinks due to catastrophes; survivors have only subset of genes of the original population  2. Intention-  Not intentional and cannot look into future; maybe giraffes long necks will suck in 20 yrs, but now it’s good for those leaves  3. Gradual- Page 3 of 9  Dozens of millions of generations for process to shape as we see today; some slow, other more rapid  Sudden changes-punctuated equilibrium o Tiny increments in each generation , and take thousands of yrs  Darwin’s theory explained new species, although not b.c. of geographic isolation  Accounted for the modification of organic structures over time  Apparent purposeful design linked to survival and reproduction  He went through one grand tree of descent ; connected with others  Share common ancestry to chimps 98%  Many human genes have counterpart genes in caenorhabditis elegans- chemical structure that humans evolved from one ancestor  Caused controversy, scepticism, lacked coherent theory of inheritance,  Lacked solid basis for heredity  How could partial wings help birds, - all must be advantageous; yet partial forms can be adaptive even before they evolve  His wife was deeply religious; so he waited for the publications  What was not known in his day makes it more important to elaborate on now o Modern synthesis genes and particulate inheritance:  Mechanism of inherence not known then; mendle shows it is particulate and not blended  Passed in intact packets called genes; can’t be acquired  Gene- defined as smallest discrete unit inherited by offspring’s intact, w/e being broken up or blended  Genotypes-entire collection of genes within an individual; not passed down intact in contrast  Genotypes with sexual reproduction is broken up each generation; each person inherits a random half of genes from mothers genotype and random from fathers genotype  Specific half of genes we inherit from each parent-are identical to half of those possessed by that parent; b.c. they are discrete without modification Page 4 of 9  Modern synthesis movement in 30-40’s- discarded biological misconceptions such as lamaracks o Ethology movement:  Behaviour leaves no fossils  All behaviou
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